Humanitarian Initiative

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The Humanitarian Initiative is a group of states that evolved within the framework of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and nuclear weapons diplomacy more widely. 155 states subscribed to the last iteration of the initiative's Joint Statement in 2014.[1] Since 2013, it led to a series of conferences exploring the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, culminating in the pledge, issued by the Austrian Government, to "fill the legal gap for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons".[2] The Austrian Pledge has been endorsed by 61 governments as of March 2015.[3] The Humanitarian Initiative is seen as a direct answer to the lack of progress in nuclear disarmament.[4]

Origins[edit]

The 2010 NPT Review Conference was formally successful, and concluded with 188 state parties adopting a consensus document, including language on the catastrophic humanitarian consequences any use of nuclear weapons would have:

"The Conference expresses its deep concern at the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and reaffirms the need for all States at all times to comply with applicable international law, including international humanitarian law."[5]

This language was interpreted as a mandate to take forward the humanitarian perspective on nuclear weapons. At the next NPT conference, which was held in Vienna in 2012, Switzerland therefore delivered the "Joint Statement on the humanitarian dimension of nuclear disarmament" to the first session of the preparatory committee to the 2015 NPT Review Conference. The statement, delivered on 2 May 2012, was joined by 16 states.[6] On 22 October of the same year, Benno Laggner, the Swiss Ambassador to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, delivered a very similar version of the statement to the First Committee of the United Nations General Assembly in New York. This time, 35 nations had joined the Statement.[7]

When South Africa on 24 April 2013 read the "Joint Statement on the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons" to the second session of the preparatory committee to the 2015 NPT Review Conference, held in Geneva, the statement membership had swelled to 80 states,[8] making the it the largest mono-thematic statement in the history of the NPT. The meeting's Chair, Ambassador Cornel Feruta of Romania, dubbed the established group the "Humanitarian Initiative".[9][10]

Later in 2013, 125 states joined New Zealand's iteration of the same statement in the UN General Assembly.

One year later, 155 States joined the statement on its latest iteration, by New Zealand before the UNGA First Committee on 20 October 2014, marking the peak of the initiative.[1] The statements of the Humanitarian Initiative are still drafted by the 16 original states and coordinated by the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs. At the same time, a group of 16 other states - all of which rely on extended nuclear deterrence under the U.S. "nuclear umbrella" - read a competing statement on the humanitarian consequences. This statement was notable by the absence of the phrase, "It is in the interest of the very survival of humanity that nuclear weapons are never used again, under any circumstances." Especially this last phrase had been objected to by NATO states and other U.S. allies generally susceptible to arguments of international humanitarian law. The states explained that in order to keep nuclear deterrence, they needed to stand by a credible threat to use nuclear weapons under specific circumstances, and could therefore not endorse the statement of the original humanitarian initiative.[11]

Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons conferences[edit]

Oslo conference[edit]

On 4 and 5 March 2013, the first-ever Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was hosted by NATO-member Norway, attended by 127 states.[12] At the conference, scientists presented new findings on the impact of nuclear weapons on humans, cities, the environment and global climate. Humanitarian organisations including UNDP, OCHA and the ICRC explained that in the event of a nuclear detonation, no organisation in the world would be able to provide adequate help, nor was it likely that an adequate capacity could be buit.[13] The conference greatly contributed to the momentum around the discussion on the humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons, with Mexico announcing a follow-up conference.[14]

Mexico conference[edit]

The second conference[15] was held in Nayarit, Mexico, on 13–14 February 2014 and drew 146 states, international and humanitarian organisations as well as civil society coordinated by the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons. In addition to the topics of the Oslo meeting, the conference also discussed the risk of accidental detonations, or the use of nuclear weapons by miscalculation. In the Chair's summary of the meeting, the Mexican Government noted that:[16]

«The effects of a nuclear weapon detonation are not constrained by national borders − it is therefore an issue of deep concern shared by all. (...) Today the risk of nuclear weapons use is growing globally as a consequence of proliferation, the vulnerability of nuclear command and control networks to cyber-attacks and to human error, and potential access to nuclear weapons by non-state actors, in particular terrorist groups. As more countries deploy more nuclear weapons on higher levels of combat readiness, the risks of accidental, mistaken, unauthorized or intentional use of these weapons grow significantly. (...) It is a fact that no State or international organization has the capacity to address or provide the short and long term humanitarian assistance and protection needed in case of a nuclear weapon explosion. Moreover, it would not be possible to establish such capacities, even if attempted. (...)

We need to take into account that, in the past, weapons have been eliminated after they have been outlawed. We believe this is the path to achieve a world without nuclear weapons. In our view, this is consistent with our obligations under international law, including those derived from the NPT as well as from Common Article 1 to the Geneva Conventions. (...) The broad-based and comprehensive discussions on the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons should lead to the commitment of States and civil society to reach new international standards and norms, through a legally binding instrument. It is the view of the Chair that the Nayarit Conference has shown that time has come to initiate a diplomatic process conducive to this goal (...) making the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons the essence of disarmament efforts.

It is time to take action. The 70th anniversary of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki attacks is the appropriate milestone to achieve our goal. Nayarit is a point of no return.»

Vienna conference[edit]

The Vienna Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons was hosted by the Austrian Government on 8–9 December 2014.[17] For the first time, Western states armed with nuclear weapons also attended the conference, with representatives from the United States and he United Kingdom. The French government declined to attend, while India and Pakistan had already attended the prior meetings.[18] China sent a high-ranking diplomat, but only in observer capacity (i.e. accredited as 'academic').[19] In addition to a reiteration of the evidence on the humanitarian impact of nuclear detonations and nuclear testing, and scientific analysis of the risk of such detonations occurring, the Vienna Conference also included a panel on the contributions of international humanitarian law, international environmental law, to the legal status of nuclear weapons.

At the close of the conference and alongside the Chair's summary, the Austrian Government issued the Austrian Pledge, in which it identifies a "legal gap for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons". Austria therefore

«...pledges to cooperate with all relevant stakeholders, States, international organisations, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movements, parliamentarians and civil society, in efforts to stigmatise, prohibit and eliminate nuclear weapons in light of their unacceptable humanitarian consequences and associated risks.»

The Austrian Pledge has been endorsed by 61 states as of 25 March 2015.[3]

Pope Francis also sent a personal message to the conference, calling for nuclear disarmament.[20] The Vatican also used this opportunity to rebalance its position on nuclear weapons, judging that nuclear deterrence had become "morally problematic".[21]

Outlook[edit]

The series of conferences, renewed attention for the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons and the Austrian Pledge have all increased expectations for the 2015 NPT Review Conference. It is rumoured that a follow-up conference to the Vienna Conference could be hosted by South Africa[22] or Brazil.[23] In the summary of the Mexican conference, Juan Manuel Gomez-Robledo, Mexico's deputy Foreign Minister had called for negotiations on a new legal instrument for the prohibition of nuclear weapons to commence around the 70th anniversary of the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, i.e. in August 2015.[16]

The humanitarian dimension of nuclear disarmament[edit]

The Humanitarian Initiative carries forward the focus on the humanitarian dimension of nuclear disarmament.[24] Since all states have to abide by international humanitarian law at all times, they cannot use weapons that have indiscriminate and disproportionate effects, and have to refrain from attack in line with the principle of precaution. In 1996, the International Court of Justice stated in its advisory opinion on nuclear weapons that "it is difficult to envisage how any use of nuclear weapons could be compatible with the requirements of international humanitarian law,"[25] but declined to issue an opinion on the "policy of deterrence" or to conclude that "recourse to nuclear weapons would be illegal in any circumstance."[26] In light of the evidence gathered by the three conferences on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, the ICRC has strengthened its position, calling the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons a "humanitarian imperative".[25]

Author Eric Schlosser, in his 2013 book "Command and Control," described accidents involving nuclear weapons and argued that the number and severity was greater than officially acknowledged.[27] A document obtained via a Freedom of Information Act request contained information on over one thousand accidents involving nuclear weapons in the United States, between 1950 and 1968, although many of them were "trivial."[28]

Controversy[edit]

The statement has generated controversy in states under the US nuclear umbrella but especially critical of nuclear weapons. The German foreign minister announced Germany would seek out ways to join the statement at a future iteration.[29]

In Japan, much attention was given to Nagasaki Mayor Abe, who among others attacked the government for failing to join the Humanitarian Initiaitve.[30] Japan's Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida subsequently stated it was "quite regrettable" his country had not joined the statement.[31] Kishida later announced Japan's decision to sign the next iteration of the statement,[32] after public pressure by NGOs and the mayor of Nagasaki increased.[33] Four member of NATO as well as five members of the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative have thus far joined the initiative.

Japan has come under similar pressure for announce that it will not endorse the Austrian Pledge.[34] Similarly, NATO-states have come under increasing pressure to justify their reluctance to engage with the arguments of the humanitarian initiative.[35]

Former Australian Foreign Minister Gareth Evans also criticized the Australian government sharply for staying away from the statement, after documents obtained by the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons under the Freedom of Information Act showed Australian opposition to efforts towards nuclear disarmament.[36] The Australian government drew heavy criticism for its diplomatic attempts to undermine the New Zealand-led humanitarian initiative statements.[37]

Members of the Initiative[edit]

The following 155 states have signed a statement by New Zealand as part of the initiative: Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, the Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, the Republic of Congo, the Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, the Holy See, Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, the Maldives, Mali, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, the Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen and Zambia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Joint Statement on the Humanitarian Consequences of Nuclear Weapons delivered by Ambassador Dell Higgie of New Zealand
  2. ^ "Austrian Pledge". Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "List of states that have pledged to fill the legal gap for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons". International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons. International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  4. ^ Sauer, Tom (1 April 2015). "The NPT and the Humanitarian Initiative: Towards and Beyond the 2015 NPT Review Conference, p.3". DeepCuts. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  5. ^ The 2010 NPT Final Document hosted by the United Nations
  6. ^ The 2012 statement can be found at Reaching Critical Will
  7. ^ The New York iteration of the statement is hosted at Reaching Critical Will
  8. ^ Text of the South African statement on behalf of the Humanitarian Initiative
  9. ^ South Africa's statement on behalf of the Humanitarian Initiative as recorded on the UN Papersmart website
  10. ^ Johnson, Rebecca: NPT and risks to human survival: the inside story, 29 April 2013
  11. ^ Bishop, Julie (14 February 2014). "The humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons". Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs. Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  12. ^ "Conference: Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear weapons". Norwegian Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Norwegian Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  13. ^ "Chair’s summary Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons". Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  14. ^ The conference and Mexico's announcement at the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  15. ^ "2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE HUMANITARIAN IMPACT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS". Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Gomez-Robledo, Juan Manuel (14 February 2014). "Chair's Summary: Second Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons". Reaching Critical Will. Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  17. ^ "Vienna Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons". Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  18. ^ Cirincione, Joe (8 December 2014). "Vienna Conference Could ‘Change the Calculus’ of US Nuclear Policy". Defense One. Defense One. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  19. ^ Bora, Kukil (9 December 2014). "International Business Times". China Sends Official Posing As ‘Academic’ To Attend Vienna Nuclear Conference: Report. Retrieved http://www.ibtimes.com/china-sends-official-posing-academic-attend-vienna-nuclear-conference-report-1744914.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  20. ^ Pope Francis urges world towards nuclear disarmament, Vatican Radio, 9 December 2014.
  21. ^ "NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT: TIME FOR ABOLITION A CONTRIBUTION OF THE HOLY SEE". Austrian Foreign Ministry. The Holy See. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  22. ^ Borrie, John (12 December 2014). "Vienna Day 2: The end of the beginning". UNIDIR / ILPI. United Nations Institute for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  23. ^ Sauer, Tom (1 April 2015). "The NPT and the Humanitarian Initiative: Towards and Beyond the 2015 NPT Review Conference, p.8". DeepCuts. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  24. ^ Article 36: 79 states issue humanitarian statement at Non-Proliferation Treaty PrepCom
  25. ^ a b Maurer, Peter (18 February 2015). "Nuclear weapons: Ending a threat to humanity". International Committee of the Red Cross. President of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  26. ^ Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996, International Court of Justice.
  27. ^ "Nuclear 'Command And Control': A History Of False Alarms And Near Catastrophes". NPR. National Public Radio. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  28. ^ Schlosser, Eric (27 November 2014). "The Guardian". Why we must rid the world of nuclear weapons. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  29. ^ Letter by German foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle to the Chair of the Subcommittee on Disarmament and Arms Control in the German Federal Parliament, Uta Zapf
  30. ^ David McNeill: Nagasaki Mayor attacks Abe for ‘betraying’ world over nuclear weapons, The Independent
  31. ^ Kyodo News International: Obama's possible Hiroshima visit meaningful for disarmament: Kishida, 6 August 2013
  32. ^ NHK, Japanese broadcaster: Japan to sign UN anti-nuclear statement, 11 October 2013
  33. ^ NHK, Japanese broadcaster: Why Japan did not sign past statements, 11 Oct 2013
  34. ^ "Japan not to support Austrian document seeking nuclear weapons ban". Kyodo News. Kyodo News. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  35. ^ Egeland, Kjølv (26 February 2015). "Talking to the hand". UNIDIR / ILPI. International Law and Policy Institute. Retrieved 28 March 2915.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  36. ^ The Age: ALP nuclear backflip linked to US defence, 2 October 2013
  37. ^ Dorling, Philip (10 March 2014). "The Sydney Morning Herald". Federal government worked to scuttle New Zealand statement against nuclear weapons. Retrieved 28 March 2015.