Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake

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The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. On 26 December 2004, the earthquake, which struck off the northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, generated a tsunami that wreaked havoc along much of the rim of the Indian Ocean. Particularly hard-hit were the countries of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. About 275,000 people were killed, tens of thousands more were injured, and 10 million became homeless and displaced.[1]

Contributing countries and supra-national organizations[edit]

Asian expatriates, governments, humanitarian organisations and individuals around the world arrived, eager to offer aid and technical support. Such was the global scope of the disaster that the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was activated in quick succession by the French Civil Protection Agency,[2] the Indian space agency ISRO,[3] and by UNOOSA on behalf of UNOPS,[4] thus providing a wide variety of humanitarian satellite imagery to aid and rescue organisations. The World Bank initially estimated the amount of aid needed at US$5 billion.[5] Although numerous countries provided funds for relief and assistance, the UN criticised both the US and Europe for providing inadequate resources. By 1 January 2005 over US$1.8 billion (£1bn) had been pledged.

In wake of the disaster, Australia, India, Japan, United States formed a coalition to coordinate aid efforts to streamline immediate assistance. However, at the Jakarta Summit on 6 January 2005, the coalition transferred responsibilities to the United Nations.

Criticism of donor response[edit]

Sailors of USS Abraham Lincoln prepare for aerial resupply drops by US helicopters.

Throughout the entire period of the main response to the tsunami disaster – from December 2004 for the next four or five years – there was much debate about both the size and form of way that assistance was delivered. For example, just one day after the tsunami, on 27 December 2004, UN Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Jan Egeland reportedly categorised the contributions of rich countries as "stingy".[6] This was widely misinterpreted in the media as categorising the overall response to the tsunami whereas Mr Egeland later explained that at the time he had been making a general remark about overall global aid flows in recent years.[7] Speaking at a press conference later Mr. Egeland said, "It has nothing to do with any particular country or the response to this emergency. We are in early days and the response has so far been overwhelmingly positive".[8] The U.S. government, led by President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell, added another US$20 million on 28 December to the original U.S pledge of US$15 million, bringing the total up to US$35 million (not including direct aid rendered by naval vessels dispatched to the region).[9] Initially, the U.S. Navy dispatched P-3C Orion patrol aircraft and an aircraft carrier to assist with relief operations.[10]

On 31 December the US pledge was increased tenfold to US$350 million,[11] with President Bush saying that that amount would probably increase further. President Bush also signed a decree ordering flags to be flown at half-mast during the first week of the new year.

During the early period of the response to the tsunami, concerns were voiced in various quarters that the international relief effort might falter if nations did not honour their initial pledges. On 3 January 2005, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan urged donor nations to ensure that their pledges were fully honoured, pointing to previous cases where "we got lots of pledges, but we did not receive all the money".[12]

On 5 January, as countries jockeyed to make large donations, Jan Egeland said, "I'd rather see competitive compassion than no compassion", adding that too many countries were making pledges without any guarantee that the funds would arrive.[13] Following the earthquake the previous year in Iran in Bam which killed 26,000 people, Iranian officials claimed to have received just US$17.5 million of the US$1 billion originally pledged.[13] In mid-March 2005, the Asian Development Bank reported that the provision of over US$4 billion in aid promised by governments was behind schedule. Sri Lanka criticised the nations and organisations that clamoured to pledge donations, "Not a penny had come through yet. We are doing the relief work with our government money. Sri Lanka is still waiting for the money pledged by the donors. Money pledged by the people has been pledged to the NGOs."[14]

Sri Lanka's Foreign Minister, Laxman Kadirgamar, stated in a BBC interview, "A lot of aid which has been coming in latterly[15] is I'm afraid – I'm sorry to say – not very useful. For instance there was a container full of teddy bears. They're obviously given with good will, nobody says no to that." The patience of tsunami affected nations was being stretched: "Now the government had worked out a scheme that until 26 April everything that has come, everything that will be on the seas will be admitted tax free. After that, no!". Kadirgamar went on to say, "For instance we do not need rice, we are expecting a bumper harvest, anyone who sends rice is wasting their time and money."[14]

Many commentators claim excessive and competitive donor responses threaten less dramatic but equally important relief efforts elsewhere. "While everyone opens up their coffers for these disasters, the ongoing toll from malaria, AIDS and tuberculosis is much larger than these one-time events", said Enriqueta Bond, president of the US Burroughs Wellcome Fund. "We would do more good to invest in prevention and good public-health measures such as clean water". Tony Blair, the UK prime minister, also expressed concern that tsunami aid could detract from other pressing development needs. He pointed out that there was a disaster comparable to a "preventable tsunami every week in Africa", where 10,000 people die daily from AIDS and malaria alone.[16]

Criticism of recipient response[edit]

In the early stages, before the extent of the disaster was clear, Sri Lanka refused Israel's offers of aid, objecting to the inclusion of 60 Israeli soldiers in the 150-person mission planned by Israel's army, to set up field hospitals, including internal medicine and paediatric clinics, an Israeli army spokesman reported to BBC. Later, the Israeli humanitarian organization sent a jumbo jet carrying 18 tonnes of supplies to Colombo, however, and a rescue-and-recovery team from the Jewish ultra-Orthodox organization ZAKA arrived in Colombo with equipment used for identifying bodies, as well as body bags.[17] Corruption, bureaucracy and nationalism hampered the humanitarian response in Indonesia.[18] The Indonesia government is reported to have flown Muslim militants into Aceh to help the relief effort.[citation needed] On 12 January, the Indonesian government put restrictions on the movement of journalists and aid workers, ostensibly for their protection from Acehnese insurgents. However, there were concerns that this was a clumsy attempt by the government to get control over, and credit for, relief efforts in an attempt to gain an edge over the rebels.

In Sri Lanka, only 30% of those eligible affected by the tsunami as of 10 February had received any aid, and there are allegations of local officials giving aid only to their supporters, some of whom were not victims of the tsunami. The Sri Lankan government has set up a "Special Complaint Unit" for citizens to record grievances.

List of donors[edit]

The following table is a partial listing of cash commitments from various governments and nongovernmental organisations, taken from[19][20] and other sources:[21][22]

Note: Exchange rates were taken on 8 January 2005, when €1 = US$1.30585; GBP 1 = US$1.87110; CAD 1 = US$0.811853; AUD 1 = US$0.757346; HKD 1 = US$0.1282; 1 INR= US$0.0228102; 1 CNY= 0.120831; 1 NOK = US$0.158526; 1 DKK = 0.175711; 1 SEK = US$0.144363; and 1 CHF = US$0.844131.

Coun Government Permille of GNP NGOs & Public
(Excludes corporate
donations – see below)
Permille of GNP Total
(in US$
millions)
Permille of GNP[23]
Australia A$1.377bn (see below) (US$1.099bn)[24] 2.03 A$280M (US$223.4M)[25] 0.41 1,322 2.44
Austria €50M (US$65.30M)[26][27] 0.26 €20M (US$26.12M)[28] 0.10 91.42 0.36
Belgium €12M (US$15.67M) 0.05 €38.05M (US$49.70M)[29] 0.17 65.37 0.22
Bosnia US$67,000[30]
Cambodia US$40,000[30]
Canada Federal C$425M (US$414M)[31][32] Provincial C$18.5M (US$15.02M)[33] 0.70 Public C$230 (US$185.8M),[32] BusinessC$36.3M (US$29.47M) 0.28 743.68 0.98
China (PRC) CNY 522M (US$63.07M)[34] plus US$20M[35] 0.035 CNY about 500M (US$60M)[36] (USD) 146M[37]
Croatia US$917,000[30]
Cyprus US$1.3M[30]
Czech Republic CZK 200M (US$9M) 0.10 CZK 230M (US$10M) 0.12 19 0.22
Denmark DKK 420M (US$74M)[38] 0.44 DKK 200M (US$36M)[39] 0.21 110 0.65
Equatorial Guinea US$200,000[30]
Estonia US$390,000[30]
European Union US$615M n/a n/a n/a 615 n/a
Finland €50M (US$65.3M)[40] 0.40 €18.5M (US$24.2M)[41] 0.15 89.5 0.55
France €250M (US$302.84M) 0.18  ?  ? > 302.84 > 0.18
Germany €500M (US$653M)[42] + €20M (US$26M) for immediate aid 0.27 €450M (US$580M)[43] 0.22 > 1,300 > 0.50
Greece €1.3M (US$1.7M) 0.01 €19M (US$24.8M)[44] 0.14 26.5 0.15
Hong Kong HKD 50M (US$6.41M) 0.04 HKD 620M (US$79.48M)[45] 0.5 85.89 0.54[46]
Hungary US$1.2M[30]
India INR 8 billion (US$183M) 0.3  ?  ? > 183 > 0.3
Ireland €20M (US$26.12M) 0.15 €75M (US$97.94M) (Source: Irish Times 18/3/05) 0.92 117.94 1.09
Iran US$627,000[30]
Italy €70M (US$91.4M)[47]   €42M (US$57.3M)[48]   > 120.13 > 0.085
Japan US$500M[49] 0.115  ?  ? > 500 > 0.115
Kuwait US$100M[50]  ?  ? > 100
Latvia US$185,000[30]
Lithuania US$295,000[30]
Luxembourg US$6.9M[30]
Macedonia €1.5M (US$1.9M)[51] 0.03
Madagascar US$100,000[30]
Monaco US$133,000[30]
Netherlands €230M (US$300.5M) 0.58 > €160.5M (US$208.6M)[52] > 0.41 > 509.1 > 0.99
New Zealand NZ 68M (US$47.2M)[53] > NZ 19M (US$13.1M) > 60.4
Democratic People's Republic of Korea US$150,000[30]
Norway NOK 1.1 billion (US$175.3M)[54] NOK 564M (US$89.8M)[55] 265.1 1.19
Poland US$1.6M[30]
Portugal €8M (US$10.45M) 0.07  ?  ? 10.45 0.07
Qatar US$25M[56] 1.43  ?  ? > 25 > 1.43
Romania US$240,000[30]
Russia US$2.0M[30]
Spain €56M (US$73.13M) 0.087  ?  ? > 73.13 > 0.087
Saudi Arabia US$30M[57] 67.4M, US$[58] > 367.4 >
Senegal US$200,000[30]
Slovakia US$360,000[30]
Slovenia US$110,000[30]
Sweden SEK 500M (US$72.2M)[59] SEK 1100M (US$159M)[60] 177.2 0.5
Switzerland CHF 27M (US$22.8M) CHF 211.1M (US$178.2M)[61] as of 11 February 2005 200.9 0.64
Taiwan US$50.0M[62] US$60M 110 0.34
Turkey TRY 28.9M[63]  ?  ? 37.6
United Arab Emirates US$20M  ?  ? 20
United Kingdom £75M (US$145M)[64] 0.083 £350M (US$655M)[65] as of 26 February 2005 0.38 800 0.47
United States US$950M[66] 0.086 US$1875M[67] 0.17 2,825 0.26
World Bank US$1000M[30] n/a n/a 250 n/a
Zimbabwe US$3.2M[30]
Total >US$10bn

Pledged amounts as percentages of GDP[edit]

The table below examines the amounts pledged for humanitarian efforts in light of rough national economic power, which is arguably a more useful measure. There are a number of caveats that should be kept in mind while reading the table:

  1. The figures do not include the cost of operating military resources deployed to provide aid, and it is unclear how this should be quantified. While some would argue that military resources are already paid for and that the relief effort can be regarded as a logistics training exercise, the increased operational costs are an unbudgeted expenditure. Others would argue that the military resources provide the only infrastructure that will deliver aid in a timely manner to save lives to the hardest hit and neediest areas, and without this quickly deployable infrastructure the other contributions, no matter how large would be useless or arrive too late.
  2. The figures do not tell anything about the rate in which the money will be spent. How much of the money is going to be spent this year and how much is reserved for long-term reconstructions efforts is not reflected by this table.
  3. Use of gross domestic product or gross national product should be treated with caution as this does not accurately measure a country's ability to provide aid. Similarly, whether to use 'nominal' or 'real' GNP/GDPs can be argued. Some GDP/GNP figures are also out of date e.g. for the year 2002, or even 2001, so comparisons between countries may not be for the same time period. A better comparison might be used by examining purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP/GNP figures (as used in the CIA factbook).
  4. It can be argued, the quality of aid differs as "aid" is an ambiguous term that may cover a wide variety of methods, including 'soft' loans (where the money has to be repaid with interest albeit at below market rates), and 'tied aid' (where the money has to be spent buying goods and services from the donating country). The terms by which the aid is accepted play a large role in determining how useful it is and also affect the relative cost to the donating country.
  5. This is aid for one particular disaster. Without knowing how much aid the various countries and their people donate to other disasters, one cannot draw conclusions on their overall level of generosity.
  6. The numbers below are the pledged contributions. Arguably, only funds that are actually transferred should be counted. For example, after the Bam earthquake in December 2003, the Iranian government received only US$17.5 million from the US$1 billion of international donations that had been promised.[68]
  7. The amounts pledged by individual sovereign nations within the European Union should be increased by amounts pledged by the European Union itself.

With all the caveats in mind, the following table lists some countries in order of nominal aid donated divided by GDP.

Country GDP (2003 or earlier)
(US$ billions) See
Aid[69] (total)
(US$ millions)
 % of GDP Aid by government
(US$ millions)
 % of GDP Aid by public
(US$ millions)
 % of GDP
Australia 518.4 1,322 0.255 1,099 0.212 227.6 0.043
Liechtenstein 0.825 1.2 0.145 ? ? ? ?
Qatar 17.47 25 0.140 ? ? ? ?
Norway 221.6 265.1 0.119 175.3 0.079 89.8 0.040
Netherlands 512 509.1 0.0994 300.5 0.0587 208.6 0.0407
Canada 834.4 743.68 0.089 531.2 0.064 212.48 0.025
Ireland 148.6 117.94 0.079 20 0.0135 97.94 0.0659
Sweden 300.8 230.9 0.077 71.9 0.024 159 0.053
Finland 162 89.5 0.055
Hong Kong 158.6 85.89 0.054 6.41 0.004 79.48 0.05
Saudi Arabia 188.5 97.5 0.052
Switzerland 309.5 157.9 0.051
Denmark 212.4 100.9 0.1475
Germany 2400 1,071 0.0446
United Kingdom 1795 795.2 0.0443 140.3 0.0078 654.9 0.036
Taiwan 293.2[70] 110 0.038 50 0.017 60 0.021
United Arab Emirates 70.96 25 0.035
United States 10,880 2,875 0.026
Czech Republic 85 19 0.0224
Belgium 302 65.37 0.0216
Singapore 91.34 15 0.016
Greece 173 21.3 0.0123
Japan 4326 580 0.013 500 0.012 80 0.0018
Spain 836.1 3.713 0.00007
Italy 1466 120.13 0.0082
Iceland 10.5 2.5[71] 0.0238
Portugal 149 10.45 0.0070
Mainland China 1410 95.07 0.0067
India 599 183 0.0031
France 1748 54.84 0.0031

Pledged amounts on a per capita basis[edit]

– Another way of looking at the figures.

Country Population (July 2004 or earlier)
See
Aid[72] (total)
(US$ millions)
per capita (US$) Aid by government
(US$ millions)
per capita (US$) Aid by public
(US$ millions)
per capita (US$)
Australia 19,913,144 1,322 66.38 1,099 55.19 223.4 11.22
Norway 4,574,560 265.1 57.95 175.3 38.32 89.8 19.63
Kuwait 2,257,549 100 44.3
Liechtenstein 32,528 1.2 36.89
Netherlands 16,318,199 509.1 31.20 300.5 18.42 208.6 12.78
Ireland 3,939,558 117.94 29.94 20 5.08 97.94 24.86
Qatar 840,290 20 23.80
Canada 32,507,874 743.68 22.88 531.2 16.34 212.48 6.54
Switzerland 7,450,867 157.9 21.19
Sweden 9,010,627 230.9 25.63 71.9 7.97 159 17.64
Finland 5,214,512 89.5 17.16
Denmark 5,413,392 87.5 16.16
United Kingdom 60,270,708 795.7 13.20 140.3 2.33 654.9 10.87
Hong Kong 6,855,125 85.89 12.529 6.41 0.935 79.48 11.594
Germany 82,424,609 992 12.04
United States 293,027,571 2,875 9.81
Iceland 293,966 2.5 8.50
United Arab Emirates 2,523,915 20 7.92
Taiwan (ROC) 22,191,087 110 4.96 50 2.25 60 2.71
Japan 127,333,002 580 4.55 500 3.93 80 0.63
Singapore 4,353,893 15 3.45
Belgium 10,348,276 24.9 2.41
Italy 58,057,477 125 2.15
Greece 10,647,529 21.6 2.03
Czech Republic 10,246,178 19 1.85
Spain 40,280,780 73.1 1.81
Saudi Arabia 25,795,938 30 1.16
Portugal 10,524,145 10.9 1.04
France 60,424,213 57 0.94
Mainland China 1,298,847,624 63 0.05
India 1,065,070,607 23 0.02

Asia and Oceania[edit]

 Australia
  • Federal Government — After committing and distributing to international aid an initial A$10 million pledge (US$7.7 million), the government of Australia announced on 29 and 31 December that two additional disbursements of A$25 million (US$18.1 million) each would be committed:[73] A$10 million to aid organizations, A$10 million to Indonesia, and A$5 million (US$3.6 million) to Sri Lanka. Foreign Affairs Minister Alexander Downer has indicated Australia will offer further aid as needed. On 5 January in Jarkarta, Prime Minister John Howard announced an Australian aid package of A$1 billion[74] for Indonesia (US$766.89M), significantly exceeding the half billion expected.[75] The bilateral aid package[76] consists equally of grant assistance and highly concessional funding. On 11 January, A$500,000 aid was announced for the Seychelles, taking total federal government monetary assistance to A$1,060,500,000. The World Bank criticized Australia for not being transparently enough and said that only a small part of the money was really for the victims[77]
  • State governments — The governments of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia have all pledged monetary assistance to a combined total of A$17.45 million (US$13.6 million).
  • Military/Professional — As part of Australia's aid-assistance, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is working extensively in the region, alongside American forces. Upwards on 900 unarmed personnel are working in Indonesia, including 15 air-traffic controllers managing the massive aid effort in Aceh. Eight Royal Australian Air Force C-130 Hercules are currently assisting in the massive clean-up in Indonesia. Four Hercules are moving stores within Indonesia, while another four planes are establishing an air bridge to move material and personnel from Australia. At the outbreak of the disaster, three were immediately dispatched, laden with essentials such as medical supplies, water purification units, blankets and bottled water. Also, a Royal Australian Navy amphibious transport ship HMAS Kanimbla was dispatched from Sydney on New Year's Eve, to arrive in Indonesia on 13 January, with two H-3 Sea King helicopters on board. Furthermore, four Australian Army UH-1 Iroquois helicopters are working in Aceh, where the ADF has established a field hospital and water plant. The Australian Federal Police (AFP) also has teams on the ground, particularly in Thailand, including body identification teams. Teams of medical and emergency professionals were sent with the call going out for volunteers ready and willing to fly to the affected areas to further assist with the relief and rebuilding operation. In response to a request from the Maldivian Government, Australia has sent ecological experts to repair coral reefs – the life-blood of Maldivian tourism – and teachers to restore schooling. The estimated cost of this additional support is above A$60 million (US$46.5M), and is being managed by Emergency Management Australia (EMA).
  • Public/Corporate — Australia's three major commercial television networks, the Seven Network, the Nine Network and Network Ten took the unprecedented step of pooling resources to organise a special concert telethon which aired on 8 January. Simultaneously broadcast on all three networks and in most capitals on the Triple M radio network, the telethon was an extraordinary display of solidarity and co-operation in the usually fiercely competitive commercial television and radio markets (see Australia Unites: Reach Out To Asia). As of end of broadcast, the figure raised/pledged was A$15,198,349.53, however phone lines remained open and the final tally totalled at over A$20 million. Overall corporate response has been criticised as inadequate, particularly considering bumper profits. The Australian public has raised over A$190 million (US$143.37 million) so far. As a sign of respect to the victims of the disaster, New Year's Eve celebrations around the country were either toned down or cancelled. Most of those celebrations that did proceed organised collections for charities in an attempt to avoid criticism. Australia's largest New Year's celebration, in Sydney, alone raised over A$1.1 million for.[78]
 Cambodia The Royal Cambodian Government has donated US$40,000 total: US$10,000 each to India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. See[79]
 People's Republic of China (PRC) The PRC government will send RMB 521.63 million (US$63 million) to South and Southeast Asia. The overall donations from the Chinese public up to now are over 500 million RMB.
 Hong Kong, SAR (PRC) As of 7 January 2005, citizens of Hong Kong have donated a total of HKD 560 million (US$71.8 million) (CRHK, HKET).

Hutchison Whampoa Limited and Li Ka Shing Foundation of Hong Kong announced on 28 December 2004 that they would donate HKD 24 million (US$3.08 million) for the relief fund. Performer Karen Joy Morris (aka. Karen Man Wai Mok) pledged to donate HKD 200 thousand (Ming Pao). Performers of EEG also pledged to donate a total sum of HKD 630 thousand. Sir Run Run Shaw has donated HKD 10 m.

Hong Kong Jockey Club has donated HKD 10 m, and will donate HKD 1 for each dollar it received from donors (target at a minimum HKD 10 m). MTR donated HKD 0.5 for each passenger trip on 2 January 2005, with a total sum at HKD 1 m. KCR donated all the fares collected in the four-hour extension of train services on 1 January 2005.

Hong Kong Red Cross has collected HKD 100 m (global target US$46 m / HKD 360 m). MSF has stopped collected donations for the tsunami, and requested donors to donate to its other programmes. World Vision Hong Kong has collected HKD 50 m.

A variety show TV programme on TVB and RTHK on 2 January 2005 has collected HKD 40 m (HKET).

Various NGOs, companies and individuals have set off to the affected countries to offer assistance.

The government of Hong Kong has sent 120 personnel to help Hong Kong residents and search for missing people. Police and medical teams are stand-by to offer assistance.


Update: At 3 December 2005, Red Cross Hong Kong has already collected HK$620M.[45]

 Macau, SAR (PRC) Macau Red Cross has collected MOP 35 m.
 India
  • Government of India — The federal government has pledged INR 1 billion (US$23 million) to Sri Lanka and Maldives in addition to warships and aircraft to distribute relief supplies. A federal budgetary allocation of INR 7 billion (US$160 million) has been earmarked for immediate distribution to affected Indian provinces.
  • Military — As part of India's rescue and aid-assistance,[80] the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard deployed 32 Naval ships, seven aircraft and 20 helicopter in the Indian ocean region. This was the part of various operations like Operation Madad (in Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu coasts), Operation Sea Waves (in Indian territory of Andaman & Nicobar Islands), 'Operation Castor' (in Maldives), 'Operation Rainbow' (on Sri Lanka) and 'Operation Gambhir' (in Indonesia).[81] Also Indian Naval group was able to start the rescue operations in neighbouring countries within 12 hours from the time of the Tsunami and the first foreign navy to reach them.[82]
  • Public — The citizens of India and various NGO's have actively participated in providing relief materials and charity to the tsunami stricken people.
 Japan The Japanese government will provide US$500 million in aid to affected countries. Emergency medical teams were sent to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives.

Japan, which is the world's second largest donor of Official Development Assistance (known as ODA), is also dispatching Japan Self-Defense Forces vessels off Northern Sumatra to supply aid. Land, Air, and Maritime Forces were already ordered preparation.

 Malaysia Malaysia has also sent rescue teams abroad to as local damage were minimal and this freed the Special Malaysian Rescue Team (SMART) to fly to Indonesia. The team 73-member combination unit from SMART,[83] and the Fire and Rescue Department were sent to Medan with food supply, medicine and clothing for about 2,000 victims. An additional military doctors team in a CN 235 aircraft and a helicopter were also sent to Aceh. Further aid are being sent using C-130 Hercules transport aircraft,[84] a volunteer body for humanitarian relief consisting of doctors and nurses have also flown to Sri Lanka. Currently, it has two teams based in Kesdam Military Hospital, one of the two surviving hospitals in Banda Aceh. Malaysia also has opened its airspace and two airports, Subang Airport and Langkawi International Airport to relief operations and acts as a staging base to forward relief supplies to Aceh.
 New Zealand
  • Government — The New Zealand government announced it will donate NZD10 million (US$7.2 million). On 18 January, the New Zealand Government announced an increase in aid to a total of NZD68 million (US$47.2 million), including its initial NZD10 million commitment. The government's response includes NZD20 million (A$18.4 million) for United Nations relief efforts, NZD20 million (A$18.4 million) for work in Aceh and other parts of Sumatra through a bilateral aid program in Indonesia and a NZD19 million (A$17.5 million) dollar-for-dollar matching of public donations by New Zealanders.
  • Military — Also, an airforce (RNZAF) C-130 Hercules, working in unison with the Royal Australian Air Force, has been sent for evacuation and transport of relief supplies. . New Zealand has also sent an RNZAF 757 aircraft to the Thai city of Phuket with a specialist victim identification team on board. The 38-year-old aircraft have, unfortunately, been plagued with severe technical difficulties, and on several occasions, been forced to halt aid efforts.
  • Public — The New Zealand government also announced that it would match, dollar for dollar, the amount pledged by its citizens to various charities. As of 18 January, this equates to a further NZD 19 million.[85]
 North Korea The government of North Korea has pledged US$150,000.[68]
 Pakistan
  • Government of Pakistan has announced a PKR 10 million (US$0.2 million) relief package for the earthquake victims of Sri Lanka. This consists of goods such as tents, medicines, drinking water and food items.
  • Military Pakistan plans to send 500 military personnel in medical and engineering teams to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.
    • Aeroplanes2 C-130 aeroplanes with relief goods and 250 doctors and engineers left for Indonesia and Sri Lanka each.[86] Six more C-130 will fly to Indonesia in a week to help in the relief work. and also two Seaking helicopters onboard PNS (Pakistan Navy Ship) Moawin are in Sri Lanka to provide logistics support.[87]
    • Navy ships Ships Khyber and Mua'awan are being sent to Sri Lanka. On board, these ships have three helicopters, a marine Expeditionary Force, doctors, and paramedics. Besides, relief goods – medicines, medical equipment, food supplies, tents, blankets- are being sent in huge quantities. Pakistan Navy ships, Tariq and Nasr, on a good will visit to the Maldives, saved 367 foreign tourists, representing 17 nationalities conducted aerial surveys to judge the extent of damage, distributed food and medicines, and provided medical assistance.[88] Pakistan Navy Task Force arrived at Colombo port to provide humanitarian assistance and relief goods to the government of Sri Lanka. An ISPR (Navy) statement here on Tuesday said that the commander of the Task Force is Commodore Ehsan Saeed and it comprises Pakistan Navy ship Moawin, a Logistic support ship having two Seaking helicopters onboard and PNS Khaibar, a guided missile destroyer carrying one Aloutte helicopter. On arrival, officials from Pakistan Mission at Colombo and local Navy officials of Sri Lanka received the ships.[87]

Upon arrival, a co-ordination meeting was held onboard PNS Moawin between Sri Lanka Navy officials, Pakistan High Commissioner to Sri Lanka and Pakistan Navy Mission Commander Commodore Ehsan Saeed to discuss the modus operandi of the relief operat

 Singapore The Singapore government has pledged SGD 5M to relief efforts initially, including SGD 1M in cash to the[89]

The Singaporean humanitarian relief operation involves more than 1200 military and civil defence personnel – of whom 900 are in Aceh, Indonesia. The humanitarian assistance provided by its military, medical and rescue teams is estimated to cost SGD 20M. Singapore has also offered to rebuild hospitals and clinics in Aceh.

The Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) has deployed three Endurance class landing platform dock ships – RSS Endurance, RSS Persistence and RSS Endeavour – off the coast of Meulaboh, one of the worst hit areas where all road access was cut off. Onboard these ships were medical and engineering teams and volunteers with NGOs. The ships were also loaded with medical supplies and heavy equipment to help clear roads and debris. It has also dispatched six Chinook helicopters and two Super Puma helicopters to Aceh, two Chinook helicopters and two Super Puma helicopters to Phuket, Thailand. C130s were also dispatched to ferry relief supplies to tsunami-hit areas.[90]

 South Korea The South Korean Government has pledged an additional US$1.4M on 28 December in addition to an earlier offer of support of US$600,000. A 20-person emergency aid team consisting of 5 medical specialists, nurses and administrative staff has been dispatched to Sri Lanka by The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare and a medical aid group. On 29 December a shipment with medicine and medical supplies worth SKW 200M (US$192,000) followed the team.
 Republic of China, Taiwan (ROC) The ROC government has pledged US$50.0M in aid to affected countries. If private philanthropic donations are calculated, relief aid from Taiwan would be expected to reach US$60M. Other forms of humanitarian aid include over 30,000 tons in emergency supplies and 50 medical teams to be dispatched to affected areas.[62]
 Tonga The government of Tonga has pledged US$65,000 and the Tongan public has donated TOP 22,887.[91]
 Vanuatu

Europe[edit]

 Austria The government wanted to give aid worth €50M (US$65.30M), but only gave €8.9M in the end.[27][93]
 Belgium Belgian government has sent €12M (US$16.4M). Various organisations such as Artsen zonder Grenzen are sending medical teams. During the charity show on 14 January, public and private media in Belgium have more than €38M collected.
 Bulgaria The Bulgarian Military Academy of Medicine has allocated BGN 200,000 (€100,000) worth of aid to Indonesia and Sri Lanka in the form of medicines and emergency equipment. The Bulgarian Red Cross and the national emergency agency have sent emergency equipment, drugs and shelters.
 Croatia The Croatian government has decided to allocate HRK 4M (€520,000) for aid to the stricken region (the amount shall be split equally between India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand). Croatian Red Cross will contribute with HRK 4.8M (€630,000) from public donations.
 Czech Republic The Czech government will give aid worth CZK 200M (€6.5M or US$8.7M), in various forms.[94] Public donations add more than CZK 230M, about US$10M. The total makes the country a leading donor from the former Eastern bloc.
 Denmark The Danish government will give aid worth DKR 300 m (€40.38M).

Danish PM Anders Fogh Rasmussen said that Denmark will increase this amount if it is deemed necessary by the UN or emergency relief organisations.

 Finland The Finnish government has already delivered €4.5M to help the victims of the tsunami, €5.5M will be given to helping aid organisations when requested. In addition, €75,000 and a field hospital from the Finnish Red Cross and €25,000 from Save the Children Finland will be sent.
 France The Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced on 29 December that €22.16M is being pledged. €15M has been allocated to the UN's agencies and Red Cross, while €1.56M should be used for immediate assistance. Another €5.6M part of this sum is the first French participation to the European aid. €20M has been pledged on 30 December, mostly for clean water installations. €100,000 has been given by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 27 December, and a plane with 100 rescue personnel and 800 kg of medical supplies was sent.
 Germany The German government has initially allocated €20M (US$26M) for immediate aid. Fast-response teams of the governmental technical relief organisation (THW) were sent to Thailand and Sri Lanka for rescue purposes on 28 December, together with drinking water purification equipment to be installed in Galle (Sri Lanka). Additional water purification equipment was sent to the Maldives and Indonesia on first days of this year. During the last weeks, several medical and supporting units of the German armed forces have been sent to the region, including a supporting frigate and medevac airlifts. Australian and German forces have joined to build a large-scale field hospital at the scene. The German Chancellor has proposed to release the most affected countries from their debts and to create a scheme under which every EU nation "adopts" (where one has to note that the German word for adoption or godparenthood has a less demeaning undertone than the English one) one of the most severely affected countries and ensures long-lasting aid. German charities (TV shows, private donations) top as of 5 January 2005 more than US$400M. Additionally, the German government will give €500M; in a period of 3 to 5 years for long-term-help.
 Greece Greece allocated €0.3M (US$0.4M) to the Maldives and Sri Lanka, and two planes will carry to those countries over 6 tonnes of humanitarian materials.

The Greek people raised over €15M (US$19.9M) through private donations made during a TV charity marathon which included the auction of articles such as commemorative items from the Athens Olympic Games and the Euro 2004 event, as well as the fountain pen of the retreating President of the Hellenic Republic. The Greek Government added €1M (US$1.3M) to the initial amount.[95]

 Hungary Hungary sent a medical and rescue team of 10 as well as two containers and ten pallets of emergency goods to Thailand and Sri Lanka.
 Iceland The Icelandic government has pledged ISK 5M (US$70,000) to the Icelandic Red Cross[96] which will "make sure the money gets into the right hands". An aeroplane from Loftleiðir Icelandic (a subsidiary of Flugleiðir) Phuket island departed from Iceland on 28 December 2004 to pick up Swedish survivors. A little under 10 tonnes of Iceland Spring Water manufactured by Ölgerðin Egill Skallagrímsson were also sent.[97] On 7 January the Icelandic government announced that the total contribution to the earthquake disaster in Asia will be ISK 150M (US$2.5M).[71]
 Ireland The Irish government has pledged €20M (US$26.12M) in response to the earthquake-caused disaster in South Asia[98] – the majority of the money will be given to Irish Aid organisations and the UN. In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, the Irish public quickly started collecting money, on the streets, in churches, schools, in shopping centres and many other initiatives such as the Work a Day for Free, where many workers throughout the country donated a days wages to the disaster relief fund. An estimated €1M was raised also by pubs and hotels in collections. Hundreds of other events took place throughout the country. The various Irish charities raised over €75M from the public in response to the disaster with the Irish Red Cross, Concern, and Goal all raising several million each. The church based charity Trócaire alone raised €27M over just one weekend Source: Irish Times 18/3/05'
 Italy The CEI (Italian Conference of Bishops) has already sent 100,000 euros (part of a donation of US$1.7M from Caritas Internationalis) and is collecting national donations.[99] Private moneyraising efforts coordinated by newspapers and telephony companies have collected more than €12.6M.[100] The government has pledged €3M (US$3.9M). As of 31 December five Italian flights have arrived Sri Lanka carrying an advanced team of eight experts of the Italian Civil Protection Department with fifty tonnes of equipment and goods (two field hospitals, twenty doctors and medical staff, medical kits, field kitchens, water pumps, water storages, etc.)
 Luxembourg Luxembourg has announced it will donate at least €5M (US$6.5 million) as humanitarian aid.
 Netherlands The Dutch government has reserved €227M (US$295M) for aid to the affected area. A KDC-10 aircraft of the Dutch Airforce has flown several missions to the affected areas, providing emergency supplies and a mobile hospital unit. Military air-traffic-controllers have been sent to Banda Aceh to help dealing with the stream of relief flights. Also, a specialized forensic identification team has helped to find the identities of dozens of Tsunami victims in Thailand. The Dutch Red Cross has dedicated €100,000 (US$0.13 million) for emergency aid. Several private initiatives have started, which vary from calls to give money to Samenwerkende Hulporganisaties (Giro 555) to collecting food and other supplies for the affected areas. These initiatives have so far raised €160.5M (US$208.6M).
 Norway The Norwegian government has allocated NOK 1.1bn (US$180M) to be distributed to the UN, the Red Cross and other aid organisations. The prime minister has also pledged to provide more funds as needed in aid relief coordinated by the United Nations. The Royal Norwegian Air Force and Scandinavian Airlines have established airlift shuttles in order to provide emergency transport services between Thailand and Scandinavia for as long as is necessary. An ongoing appeal[101] is trying to convince the government to provide a total amount of NOK 10 billion (US$1.64bn) from The Petroleum Fund of Norway[102] to this and future disasters.
 Poland The Polish government will donate PLN 1M (US$0.3M) to Polish aid non-governmental organisations.
 Portugal The Portuguese government has approved €8M (US$10.9M) in aid to victims of the tragedy. The country has already sent a plane with relief supplies to Sri Lanka, and the Government has announced that a second plane with humanitarian aid would be sent in next days, this time to Indonesia.
 Romania The Romanian government has approved €150,000 worth of medical aid, tents and beds to South Asia. Additionally, €395,000 was raised by the public in a telethon, bringing the total to €545,500.[103]
 Russia Two transport planes of the Russian Ministry for Emergency Situations landed on Sri Lanka on 27 December carrying humanitarian aid. The planes were carrying 110 tents and 2200 blankets with a total weight of 25 tonnes, Russia also sent a rescue helicopter Bo-105, on board of which rescuers flew over the area of the calamity and searched for and evacuated people. One more plane was sent on 30 December with tents, drinking water, water cleaning stations and other humanitarian aid.[104] The town of Beslan, scene of the 2004 school hostage crisis, donated RUB 1M (US$36,000) from the fund set up after the mass hostage-taking.[105] On 11 January Russia sent field hospital equipment to Indonesia. Nearly 150 tons of humanitarian aid were flown to Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia from 27 December to 10 January. The humanitarian cargoes, part of them supplied by Belarus, include tents, blankets, bedding, water purification installations and flour.[106]
 Serbia The Serbian government has approved immediate delivery of 40 tonnes of humanitarian aid worth €150,000. Two Aviogenex airplanes were provided for the delivery. The Exit Music Festival has collected 317,000 L of water from sponsors. Serbian Red Cross has started the action of collecting money.
 Slovenia The Slovenian government has approved SIT 44M (€185,500) for immediate delivery.
 Spain
  • Central Government The Spanish Cabinet has approved an aid package totalling €54M (US$70.5M): €4M (US$5.2M) for immediate delivery, allocated to the relief shipments conducted by the Spanish Agency of International Cooperation (AECI) and NGOs; and €50M Development Aid Fund (FAD) loan, with favourable terms that include long periods of repayment and low interest, aimed to support the reconstruction efforts in all countries affected by the quake. Two cargo planes with humanitarian aid took off on 28 December to Sri Lanka and another three, of the AECI and the Red Cross, were dispatched on 31 December to Sumatra in Indonesia and Thailand. The Government has also announced a debt moratorium for affected countries.
  • Military On 8 January Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero announced the immediate deployment of a military force to assist in humanitarian tasks, comprising 650 troops, 5 planes with humanitarian aid, 2 helicopters and a hospital-ship. The military mission will last two months, it will be focused on Sumatra and it cost will be €6.5M.
  • Regional and local Governments Several Governments of the Autonomous communities have approved their particular aid packages for urgent delivery: Galicia (€500,000), Madrid (€300,000), Basque Country, (€150,000), Andalusia (€150,000), Land of Valencia (€150,000), Balearic Islands (€150,000), Castile-La Mancha (€140,000), Catalonia (€130,000) and La Rioja (€66,000). The donations of regional governments and local councils amount €2M.
 Sweden SEK 500M (US$75M) will be distributed through SIDA, the Swedish International Development Agency. An extensive relief effort on behalf of the government has been engaged including military personnel, forensic teams, search and rescue teams as Sweden is probably the nation not directly affected by the tsunami to be hardest hit. The Swedish public are also supplying Ngos with money in a never before seen extent (about SEK 500M (or US$75M)), as well as materials such as clothes and other equipment. Swedish media has still criticised the government for not doing enough for their nationals and for others as the government took days to grasp the severity of the situation.
 Switzerland The Swiss government has allocated CHF 27M (US$23.8M). Four teams of the Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit (SDC)[107] have been deployed in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Another team of SHA and WHO doctors and logisticians is on the Maldives. Operation SUMA: 3 "Super Puma" helicopters and 50 personnel were sent by the Swiss army to Sumatra under the guidance of the UNHCR. Various relief organisations contributed CHF 1M. The ongoing appeal for donations organised by[108] has resulted in CHF 160M being collected (as of 15 January 2005).
 United Kingdom
  • Government — The UK government announced an increase in its aid to £75M on 10 January 2005, up from the £50M (US$96M) pledged on 30 December 2004, and the initial pledge of £15M of aid in the early stages. The government has also promised to match the public donation. As president of the G8, the UK government and former Chancellor now Prime Minister Gordon Brown pushed for the suspension of debt repayments to the industrialised nations.
  • Public — By the end of 6 January 2005 the total from UK citizens stood at £100M (US$190M)[109] who responded by donating at a rate of up to £1M per hour in the first week. — On 26 February 2005, it was announced that the Disasters Emergency Committee (an umbrella organisation of 12 aid agencies) were closing their appeal after raising a total of £300M in the two months since the disaster struck. Other British charities raised a total of £50M.[65]
  • Corporate/Notable — Large donations were also made by HM The Queen, and other notable celebrities and wealthy individuals. Half of the FTSE 100 companies had announced sizeable donations of money/resources, with many other companies donating their services and resources at no cost.
 Vatican City The Pope has authorised the immediate release of US$6M, which are to be delivered to the International Red Cross, for use in the humanitarian relief effort.

Middle East and Africa[edit]

 Iran Iran has sent 221 tonnes of relief supplies consisting of medicine, tents, blankets, clothes and foodstuff to Indonesia as well as donating US$675,000 through the Red Crescent.
 Israel The Israeli government has sent supplies worth US$100,000 to each affected country. In addition, an Israeli medical team was dispatched to Sri Lanka, and 150 IDF doctors and rescue and relief teams were mobilised for the region with 82-tonnes of aid including 9 tonnes of medicine, nearly 4,000 L of mineral water, 12 tonnes of food, over 17 tonnes of baby food, 10,000 blankets, tents, sheeting, as well as power generators. An additional offer of assistance to India in the form of search and rescue teams from their Home Front Command as well as food and medicine has also been extended, and the Israeli Ministry of Health has been dispatched to Thailand on medical mission. Bodies identifiers from ZAKA and the Israeli police were also sent.[110][111][112]
 Kuwait The Kuwaiti government has donated KWD 3M (US$10M) as humanitarian aid.
 Morocco The Moroccan Foreign Ministry has said that aid, consisting of medical supply, vaccines and blankets, will be dispatched to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Maldives.
 Mozambique The Mozambique government has given a "symbolic"[113] US$100,000 to an aid appeal, and is encouraging businesses and individuals to donate to accounts set up by the local Red Cross.
 Oman Oman is sending relief goods worth US$3M for the victims of tsunami in Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia. Ali Ibrahim Shanoon Al-Raisi, executive director of Oman Charitable Organization (OCC), the country's Red Crescent, said four consignments carrying 300 tonnes of goods each have already been flown to Sri Lanka and Maldives in the past three days.[114]
 Qatar Qatar has offered US$25M, plus food, medical and logistical supplies.[115]
 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia has pledged a US$30M aid package consisting of US$5M worth of food, tents and medicine, to be transported and distributed via the Saudi Red Crescent and another US$5 million in funds which will be given to several international aid groups such as the Red Cross and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
 Tunisia The Tunisian government sent 2 C-130s to Indonesia full of relief supplies.
 South Africa The South African government's official financial contribution to tsunami relief consists of coordinated aid to the Maldives. This includes the sending of a freighter with South African helicopters and crew, as well as emergency supplies. The Maldives was selected because, according to Sydney Mufamadi, on behalf of the South African government, 'it was impossible to confirm the full extent of the damage as hardly any emergency rescue effort had taken place on the islands'.[116] South Africans themselves have donated an amount of US$2.6 million in cash and more than 280 tons of food to tsunami relief efforts.[117] Most of these donations have been channeled via the International Red Cross. Updated / checked: 23 February 2005
 Syria A Syrian aeroplane loaded with 40 tonnes of medical and food aid took off from Damascus Airport to Indonesia Thursday . The Syrian government newspaper Al-Thawra quoted Syria's Health Minister, Maher al-Hussami, as saying that the load included 20 tonnes of medicine, food and drinking water, as well as 880 blankets
 Turkey Turkey has donated TRY 28.9M[63] (US$37.6M) so far, which will be used in reconstruction projects and be allocated to Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Maldives.
 United Arab Emirates US$20M and 30 tonnes of food and medicine in the care of the Red Crescent, which is to deliver them to India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka.[118]

Americas[edit]

 Brazil The Brazilian government is awaiting a UN decision on joint humanitarian aid. In the meantime, initial emergency aid of 10 tonnes of food and 8 tonnes of medicine were delivered to Thailand and India by the Brazilian Air Force. In the country, private citizens and small businesses organised a national effort to collect food, medicine and clothes for the populations affected. In Rio de Janeiro, 70 tonnes donated in the city alone by locals, were delivered on 2 January to the Consul of Sri Lanka. Many more tonnes were handed to the local embassies and consulates of the countries affected.
 Canada
  • Federal Government: The Canadian government has pledged, as of 10 January 2005, C$425M (US$344.96M),[31] an increase to the original figure of C$4M offered by the federal government, which had previously been revised to 40M and then to 80M, as an immediate contribution toward the aid effort and will also be providing blankets, water purification devices, and generators through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).
  • The Canadian government will also match private donations received by 11 January 2005; according to CIDA, this represents an additional C$200M.[32]
    • The Canadian federal government has also announced a debt moratorium for the countries most severely affected by the tsunami.[119] Also, Canada has announced it will send its DART (Disaster Assistance Response Team) to Ampara in Sri Lanka.[120]
  • Provincial Governments: In addition to the federal funds, the provincial government of British Columbia has given C$8M (US$6.6M) to the Canadian Red Cross, the provincial governments of Ontario and Alberta have each pledged C$5M (US$4.1M), the provincial governments of Quebec, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia have each given C$100,000 (US$82,000), and the provincial governments of the Northwest Territories and Prince Edward Island have pledged C$25,000 and 20,000 respectively.
  • Private Sector: Measuring the extent of individual and corporate philanthropy is more difficult, although the government estimates that donations to tsunami victims have reached more than C$230M, with 200M of this available for matching. The federal government created incentives for private donations: it announced that it would match donations dollar-for-dollar and decided to bend the rules by allowing tsunami-related donations made before 11 January 2005 to be claimed on 2004 income-tax returns.
  • Military Canada's Canadian Forces Disaster Assistance Response Team was sent to Sri Lanka.
 Chile The Chilean government sent a group of four doctors, one engineer and one architect to Indonesia on 1 January 2005 and will remain there for twenty days. In addition, it has opened a special bank account for public donations.
 Mexico The Mexican federal government has pledged an aid package of US$1,100,000 (MXN 12,000,000). Search teams, known as Topos, were dispatched by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (SRE); these teams are experienced in earthquake rescue operations and could be helpful in the rescue of trapped and buried victims. The Mexican armed forces sent a hospital ship, other vessels, and helicopters. The Mexican Red Cross also invited Mexican citizens to give aid which was distributed amongst local agencies.
 United States
  • Federal Government: The United States government has allocated US$400,000 (£200,000, €300,000) to India, Indonesia, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Officials are currently working on a US$4M (£2M) aid package to help the Red Cross. Also, the United States has dispatched disaster teams to aid the nations affected. The United States is also preparing an initial US$15 million (£8M) aid package for affected nations. An additional US$20M (£11M) has been offered as an emergency line of credit. On 31 December the aid was raised to US$350M (£190M, €260M).
  • Military: The United States has dispatched numerous C-5 Galaxy and C-17 Globemaster III strategic airlifters and ten C-130 Hercules tactical airlifters containing disaster supplies, nine P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft for search and rescue support, and several teams from the Departments of State and Defense to coordinate additional assistance. They are using Utapao Naval Air Base in Thailand as their regional hub.
    • Additionally, the United States has offered assistance from its troops stationed in Japan. USS Abraham Lincoln aircraft carrier battle group, which was in port in Hong Kong, was dispatched to the coast of Sumatra to provide support to the Indonesian province of Aceh. In addition, an Expeditionary Strike Group led by USS Bonhomme Richard, scheduled for a port call in Guam, were dispatched to render assistance.
    • A total of 48 Navy and Marine Corps helicopters are involved. Each ship can produce around 90,000 US gallons (340,000 L) of fresh water per day. The US Navy has also deployed the USNS Mercy, a 1,000-bed hospital ship (to be initially staffed to support 250 patient beds).[122] More than 12,600 Department of Defense personnel are involved in the relief effort, Operation Unified Assistance.[123]
  • Private Sector: As of 10 January 2005 US based relief groups and non-governmental organisations reported having raised over US$515M. One charity said online pledges were arriving at a rate of US$100,000 an hour. Notable donors include American corporations; among them the Coca-Cola Company (US$10M), Dow Chemical Company (US$5M), The New York Stock Exchange Foundation (US$1M), Microsoft Corporation (US$3M), and Dell (US$3M initial, up to $5M through employee fundraising).
    • Pharmaceutical companies such as Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb have provided medical supplies and drugs in addition to monetary assistance. Hollywood celebrities have also donated, including Steven Spielberg (US$1.5M) and Sandra Bullock (US$1M). Private citizens, communities and schools have also begun fundraising efforts and have contributed.
    • US President George W. Bush donated US$16,000 from his personal funds; the city of Fargo, North Dakota gave US$10,000 of taxpayer money; and motorists in Chattanooga, Tennessee have been allowed to donate money to the relief effort in place of paying for traffic citations.[124] President Bush also called for a nationwide fundraising drive, headed by former US Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, and ordered American flags to fly at half-staff "as a mark of respect for the victims of the Indian Ocean Earthquake and the resulting Tsunamis".[125]

Contributing non-governmental organisations (NGOs)[edit]

The income of non-governmental organisations and multilateral organisations is derived from governments and individuals. For example, the African Union's contribution is financed by its member states. The following "contributions" may be viewed as either a diversion of funds originally earmarked for other purposes or increased donations to the contributing organisation.

ADRA Silver Spring, Maryland—The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) is continuing its response in India, Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Andaman Islands to assist those affected by last Sunday's quake and tsunami.

ADRA has set up a crisis command center in Bangkok, Thailand to coordinate its network-wide response.

ADRA International is urgently soliciting emergency donations for this response. To rapidly respond to this disaster only monetary donations are being accepted at this time. Donations can be made to the Asia Tsunami Crisis Fund online[126] or by calling 800-424-ADRA (2372). See more information at.[127]

African Union The African Union Commission Chairman Alpha Oumar Konaré has announced that the organisation will put forward US$100,000 towards disaster relief.[128]
American Friends Service Committee Building on AFSC programmes and contacts in Asia, AFSC is providing relief and planning longer-term recovery, particularly to those who might be overlooked by other agencies or relief programmes.
American Jewish Committee The AJC established a Tsunami Relief Fund, and initially allocated US$60,000 out of its own account. It has subsequently raised an additional US$450,000. AJC chapters around the United States have reached out to South Asian religious and ethnic organisations in their communities to help organise memorial services, fundraising events, and public expressions of solidarity. And AJC's office in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) has been working tirelessly to assist in the relief efforts in India, aided by Dr David Elcott of AJC's New York staff. David Elcott and his wife, Rabbi Shira Milgrom were in India at the time of the tsunami visiting their daughter, Liore Milgrom-Elcott, who was volunteering nearby through AJWS.[130]
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) has collected more than US$2M in individual contributions to the organisation's non-sectarian South Asia Tsunami Relief mailbox.[131][132]
American Jewish World Service With US$3.25 million raised, The American Jewish World Service is particularly focusing efforts on providing direct material relief to the poorest families in affected areas, including providing food, water storage containers, cooking supplies, blankets and temporary shelters and partnering with Direct Relief International to provide immediate shipments of basic medical supplies, water purification materials and oral rehydration therapies to the heavily affected communities in India and Sri Lanka.[133][134]
Buddhist Tzu-Chi Foundation of Toronto The Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu-Chi Foundation of Toronto, has number of ongoing fundraising events throughout the city. Volunteers are focusing on the Asian communities in the Greater Toronto Area. All money raised will be 100% donate to the affected area without administration fee.[135]
Catholic Relief Services CRS mounted one of the largest responses in its history – a $190-million, five-year relief and reconstruction effort that will help more than 600,000 people. CRS has more than 350 employees working in the hardest-hit areas in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka.[136]
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) Providing various forms of assistance.[137] Providing US$31.1M in cash and materials[138]
Direct Relief International Direct Relief had supplied 4.6 million courses of treatment of specifically requested medicines, supplies, and medical equipment (wholesale value: $45.5 million) provided through 68 shipments to India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Somalia. Additionally, the organization has furnished $11.8 million in cash grants to locally based clinics and hospitals.[139]
Médecins Sans Frontières Dispatching 32 tonnes of relief supplies to Sumatra. Medical and assessment teams have been sent to many of the affected areas.[140][141]
Emergency Architects Foundation Architects, engineers and planners provided professional expertise to the affected populations in Indonesia and Sri Lanka, particularly assisting in the reconstruction of schools.[142]
 European Union The EU is providing immediate emergency aid of €3M (US$4.1M) for victims to meet "initial vital needs", with more substantial aid (€30M) to be provided later. This is separate from contributions by individual member countries.
FIRST The Fast Israeli Rescue and Search Team is heading a search and rescue mission to Tamil Nadu, India.[111]
FOCUS Focus Humanitarian Assistance (FOCUS), an agency affiliated with the Aga Khan Development Network, mobilised staff, volunteers and resources in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. FOCUS supplemented aid provided by the Government and other organizations through the distribution of food kits comprising rice, lentils, oil and other nutrients. In addition, non-food items such as blankets, tarpaulins, bed sheets, ground sheets, towels, kitchen utensils and clothing were distributed to just under 4000 people. FOCUS also donated 170 tents, 200 torches, 800 battery cells, 220 blankets and 20,000 litres of drinking water to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[143]
Hadassah The Women's Zionist Organization of America has announced mobilising of its medical staff from the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem to provide aid and forensic services in Sri Lanka.[132]
Humanity First Humanity First quickly raised over £1.5M and set up food distribution points and medical centres in India, Sri Lanka, and the Banda Aceh province of Indonesia, which had been the nearest and worst hit. HF established a camp at Lamno, in Banda Aceh province immediately helped 3,000 people. A combination of medical treatment and the provision of safe water got these people out of danger. Mandays of initial response lasted over 15,000 days and initial response itself lasted for 5 months and long term development projects were established.[144]
Emblem of the IFRC.svg International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies In Geneva the IFRCS appealed for CHF 7.5M (about US$6.6M) for "immediate support" to an estimated 500,000 survivors.
IRW Islamic Relief Worldwide has increased its emergency appeal to US$5M. This includes an initial US$270,650 for relief and rehabilitation intervention in the region, and US$27,000 to meet the immediate needs of victims in Sri Lanka.[145]
Kindhearts Kindhearts for Charitable Humanitarian Development has representatives in the region providing various forms of assistance. Kindhearts is currently collecting donations for its Indonesian relief operations.[146]
Latet The non-governmental Israeli Humanitarian Aid organisation, Latet ("to give"), has dispatched a jumbo plane to Sri Lanka with 18 tonnes of equipment and is sending an aid delegation to Thailand.[111]
Lions Clubs International An initial US$170,000 from the Lions Clubs International Foundation was distributed through Lions clubs in the affected areas in the first days of the disaster. A further 50,000 in emergency grants and 250,000 for longer term aid has since been distributed. LCIF has since allocated 10 million dollars towards the relief efforts. Other pledges of support have been received including US$120,000 from the Lions of Sweden and 200,000 from the Lions of Korea.

All money raised by Lions is being distributed without any administration costs taken out.[147]

Magen David Adom The Israeli "Red Cross" dispatched over 4,000 much-needed vials of Albumin by air on 29 December, in order to relieve the casualties of a devastated Sri Lanka.[148]
Mennonite Central Committee Responded with more than US $15 million in immediate and long term assistance[149] They completed their disaster response in Indonesia in July 2008 after spending US $10 million for recovery in Aceh[150]
Medical Institute of Tamils Providing urgent medical assistance.[151]
Mercy Corps Within days of the tsunami, Mercy Corps rushed emergency responders and relief supplies to the devastated coastal region of Aceh, Indonesia – the closest landmass to the epicenter of the quake. Mercy Corps delivered emergency food to over 288,000 survivors, hygiene supplies to more than 253,000, and building materials to construct more than 500 temporary shelters. Cash-for-work programs cleared debris from over 13,000 hectares of public and agricultural land and 50 kilometers of road, and got money flowing back into the decimated local economy.[152]
Oxfam In India, Oxfam is directing its aid to four regions including the communities of Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Kanyakumari, and along the southwest coast of Kerala. The agency has put together a US$13.3M plan to provide immediate relief for people in those regions as well as offer them longer-term assistance to help rebuild their lives and livelihoods. The plan includes digging latrines, repairing water sources, and providing temporary shelter for up to 60,000 people, as well as distributing essential household items such as soap, buckets, and coconut oil. In Sri Lanka, Oxfam has been appointed as a key organisation to provide clean water and sanitation facilities in the northern part of the country. Staff members in four field offices in Trincomalee, Vavuniya, Batticaloa, and Kilinochchi have been offering immediate help to the communities around them including providing medical and rescue assistance, shelter materials, food, and water tanks. With its partners, Oxfam is undertaking detailed assessments of the needs in northern, eastern, and southern districts of the country. Additionally, the agency is establishing a new base in the south—in Matara. In Indonesia, Oxfam and UNICEF have been appointed the lead providers of clean water in Banda Aceh and its surrounding district. A provincial capital located on the northern tip of Sumatra, Banda Aceh was one of the areas hardest hit by the tsunami and is now emerging as a coordination centre.[153]
The Peace Fund (P.E.A.C.E.) The organization established The Phi Phi Island Tsunami Relief Fund (PPITRF) which provides aid to the entire Phi Phi Island; and The Krabi Relief Fund which cares for the orphans of the disaster.[154][155]
Save the Children USA Along with nearly US$25M raised thus far, Save the Children USA has focused on protecting the most vulnerable disaster victims, children, who face risks in locations where bonded labour, forced military recruitment and sexual exploitation of them take place. By setting up safe areas consisting of necessities and recreation in Sri Lanka and Indonesia, Save the Children USA is working to interview, identify, register, and reunite children who have been separated from their parents.[156][157]
United Jewish Communities, Toronto Just 24 hours after UJA Federation of Greater Toronto opened its Tsunami Relief Fund, the fund had raised more than C$150,000 from over 500 donors. Now, surpassing C$500,000, the UJC of Toronto is focusing their efforts on the International Rescue Committee for the ongoing delivery of relief supplied for the Aceh province of Indonesia, the Disaster Mitigation Institute and Carita, Catholic Relief, for delivery of food, clothes and shelter in Chennai, India, the coordination from their Mumbai office to work with the local Jewish community with field activities, and the Chabad Lubavitch Organization to provide medical help, meals and clothing in Thailand and the Chabad volunteer campaign in the region's hospitals.[158][158]
United Jewish Association, Federation of New York In addition to helping fund the JDC collection, the UJA of New York commission two quarter-page ads in the New York Times, so far raising US$500,000 in support of South Asian Tsunami victims.
UNHCR The UNHCR in Sri Lanka is opening up its local relief stockpiles to deliver immediate emergency assistance.[159]
WFPlogo130.svg UN World Food Programme Emergency food rations delivered to over one million survivors in first 20 days of crisis, including 750,000 people in Sri Lanka.
Using every possible means of transport, from landing craft to trucks, WFP has moved a total 10,000 metric tons of food to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, Somalia and Thailand.[160]
UNICEF Clothing and more than 30,000 blankets and sleeping mats to Sri Lanka
1,600 water tanks, 30,000 blankets, medical supplies and hundreds of thousands of water purification pills to India
Similar supplies to Indonesia and the Maldives.[118]
Logo UNDP.gif United Nations Development Programme US$100,000 each to Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, the Maldives and Thailand to help them assess and coordinate emergency needs.[118]
United Nations Joint Logistics Centre The UNJLC complements and co-ordinate logistics capacities of co-operating humanitarian agencies during large-scale and complex emergencies. UNJLC has been activated for the Tsunami crisis with the main office in Bangkok, a back-stop office in Rome, an air hub (staging head) in Malaysia and UNJLC cells covering the crisis region, and also based in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.[161]
United Nations Population Fund Up to US$1M and extra staff to help ensure that the special health needs of pregnant and nursing women were met.[118]
Ve'ahavta The Canadian Jewish Humanitarian and Relief Commission, Ve'ahavta ("You Shall Love"), is collecting donations which will be used to send more search and rescue personnel and logisticians, facilitate emergency feeding stations, and assist in the financing of other necessary relief items.[162]
World Jewish Aid The aim of the aid given by World Jewish Aid is to help people survive. As the situation deteriorates water contamination and disease threaten the lives of the survivors. The UK group, initially providing £25,000, is working with partners on the ground in India, Indonesia and other affected areas so to realise where their aid should be directed best.[163]
World Vision

World Vision is completing the final stage of its three-year Asia Tsunami Response (Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand). The US$346.5 million-organization's largest relief effort-program encompassed emergency relief, community rehabilitation (including child-focused programs), livelihood recovery, and infrastructure rehabilitation. Gender, protection, conflict sensitivity, HIV/AIDS and advocacy were cross-cutting components of World Vision’s response.[164]

Contributing corporations[edit]

A much more complete list of American corporate donations may be found at [36].

Pfizer US$35M ($10M cash; $25M medicines)[165]
Deutsche Bank €10M (US$13M)[166]
Coca-Cola US$10M[167]
Bristol-Myers Squibb US$5M ($1M cash; $4M medicines)[168]
Exxon Mobil US$5M[169]
Abbott Laboratories US$4M ($2M cash; $2M medicine)[170]
Microsoft US$3.5M[171]
BP US$3M[172]
Citigroup US$3M[173]
JP Morgan Chase US$3M[174]
Shell US$3M[175]
UBS US$3M[176]
Cisco Systems US$2.5M[177]
AIG/The Starr Foundation US$2.5M[178]
Wal-Mart Stores US$2M[179]
DaimlerChrysler US$2M[180]
Johnson & Johnson US$2M + medicines[181]
Vodafone £1M (US$1.95M)
Tetra Laval Group US$1.5M (including provision of liquid foods)[182]
Bank of America US$1.5M[183]
Deutsche Telekom €1M (US$1.4M)[184]
Siemens €1M[185]
Allianz €1M[186]
BASF €1M[187]
AXA Group €1M[188]
ChevronTexaco US$1.24M[189]
Infosys INR 50M (US$1.1M)[190]
Altana €750,000 (US$1M)[191]
Boeing US$1M[192]
ConocoPhillips US$1M[193]
IBM US$1M[194]
Nike US$1M[195]
Pepsi US$1M + soft drinks + water[196]
Merrill Lynch US$1M[197]
American Express US$1M[198]
The Walt Disney Company US$1M[199]
General Electric US$1M[200]
First Data Corporation (parent company of Western Union Money Transfer) $1M[201]
General Motors US$1M[202]
HSBC US$1M[203]
Verizon Communications US$1M[204]
ING US$1M[205]
Qantas A$1M + flights[206] page detailing the response by Qantas.
Cable & Wireless US$1M[207] page detailing the response by Cable & Wireless.
Dhiraagu (The Maldives' national telecommunications company) US$1M[208] (also noted on page detailing the response by Cable & Wireless.)
Bayer €500,000 (US$700,000)[209]
Tesco £310,000 (US$604,500) plus £2.8M (US$5.46M) in customer and staff donations and food, water and shelter materials[210]
Nestlé CHF640,000 (US$560,000)[211]
The Home Depot US$500,000[212]
Texas Instruments US$500,000[213]
Carrefour €300,000 (US$420,000)[214]
Hitachi JPY 20M (US$200,000)[215]
Hewitt Associates US$200,000[216]
Altria US$150,000[217]
Independent News & Media €100,000[218]
MTR Corporation Limited HKD 0.5 per passenger trip on 2 January 2005[219]
Projected goal: HKD 1M (roughly US$128,000).[220]
Marubeni America Corporation US$10,000[221]
KCR Corporation All fares collected during the 4-hour extension service on 1 January 2005 morning.
Fonterra Milk powder and infant formula throughout the region
Wing On Travel Tour guides set off to affected areas to offer assistance and translation services.
National Hockey League US$100,000+.
Bell Canada CDN 175,000 + 1:1 matching donation against employees donations.[222]
Tim Hortons CDN 1 million through customer donations to UNICEF.[223]

Fundraising events[edit]

There were numerous large-scale fundraising events with hundreds of participants around the world.

World Cricket Tsunami Appeal[edit]

Two of the nations most affected by the tsunami, India and Sri Lanka, are leading cricket-playing nations. The International Cricket Council has launched the World Cricket Tsunami Appeal to raise funds for the humanitarian effort. The highlight of this was a two-match One Day International series between a World XI and an Asian XI.

It has been reported on Cricinfo that the first of these matches raised A$8.4 million.

Other matches, such as those in late January 2005 between the New Zealand national team and a World XI also had fundraising as a primary aim.

Other events[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]