Humility

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Representation of Humility in a stained-glass window, by Edward Burne-Jones.

Humility (adjectival form: humble) is variously seen as the act or posture of lowering oneself in relation to others, or conversely, having a clear perspective, and therefore respect, for one's place in context. In a religious context this can mean a recognition of self in relation to a deity or deities, acceptance of one's defects, and submission to divine grace or as a member of an organized, hierarchical religion. Absent a religious context humility can still take on a moral and/or ethical dimension.

Humility, in various interpretations, is widely seen as a virtue in many religious and philosophical traditions, often in contrast to narcissism, hubris and other forms of pride.

The act of imposing humility upon another person is called "humiliation".

Term[edit]

The term "humility" comes from the Latin word humilitas, a noun related to the adjective humilis, which may be translated as "humble", but also as "grounded", "from the earth", or "low", since it derives in turns from humus (earth). See the English humus.[1]

Because the concept of humility addresses intrinsic self-worth, relationships and socialization as well as perspective, it is emphasized in religious practice, moral teaching and ethical study where the notion is often made more precise.

Mythology[edit]

Aidos, in Greek mythology, was the daimona (goddess) of shyness, shame and humility.[2] She was the quality that restrained human beings from wrong.

Religious views of humility[edit]

Buddhism[edit]

The natural aim of the Buddhist life is the state of enlightenment, gradually cultivated through meditation and other spiritual practices. Humility, in this context, is a characteristic that is both part of the spiritual practice, and a result of it. As a quality to be developed, It is deeply connected with the practice of Four Abodes (Brahmavihara): love-kindness, compassion, empathetic joy and equanimity. As a result of the practice, this cultivated humility is expanded by the wisdom acquired by the experiences of the ultimate Emptiness (Shunyata) and non-self (Anatta). Humility, compassion, and wisdom are intrinsic parts of the state of enlightenment.[citation needed]

Judea/Christian Commonalities[edit]

As the Jewish and the Christian faiths share some of the core scriptural references many figures, writings and themes, not just pertaining to humility, are shared. As illustrated in the person of Moses, who leads the nation of Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt and to the “Promised Land”, humility is a sign of Godly strength and purpose, not weakness. Of this great leader, the Bible states, “For Moses was a man exceeding meek above all men that dwelt upon earth" (Numbers 12:3). Moses is venerated by Jewish and Christian adherents alike.

Amongst the benefits of humility described in the Old Testament, that is shared by many faiths, are honor, wisdom, prosperity, the protection of the Lord and peace. In addition, "God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble" (Proverbs 3:34)

Judaism[edit]

Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks states that in Judaism humility is an appreciation of oneself, one's talents, skills, and virtues. It is not meekness or self-deprecating thought, but the effacing of oneself to something higher. Humility is not to think lowly of oneself, but to appreciate the self one has received. In recognition of the mysteries and complexities of life, one becomes humbled to the awesomeness one is and what one can achieve. Rabbi Pini Dunner discusses that humility is to place others first; it is to appreciate others' worth as important. In recognizing our worth as people, Rabbi Dunner shows that looking into the zillions of stars in the sky, and in the length and history of time, you and I are insignificant, like dust. Rabbi Dunner states that Moses wrote in the Torah, "And Moses was exceedingly humble, more than any man on the face of the earth." How is it possible to be humble and write you are the most humble? The conclusion is that Moses knew he was humble. It is not in denial of your talents and gifts but to recognize them and live up to your worth and something greater. It is in the service to others that is the greatest form of humility.[3][4][5][6]

Christianity[edit]

Do not imagine that if you meet a really humble man he will be what most people call “humble” nowadays: he will not be a sort of greasy, smarmy person, who is always telling you that, of course, he is nobody. Probably all you will think about him is that he seemed a cheerful, intelligent chap who took a real interest in what you said to him. If you do dislike him it will be because you feel a little envious of anyone who seems to enjoy life so easily. He will not be thinking about humility: he will not be thinking about himself at all.

C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity, Pg 128

C.S. Lewis writes, in Mere Christianity, that pride is the "anti-god" state, the position in which the ego and the self is directly opposed to God: "Unchastity, anger, greed, drunkenness, and all that, are mere fleabites in comparison: it was through Pride that the devil became the devil: Pride leads to every other vice: it is the complete anti-God state of mind."[7] In contrast, Lewis states that, in Christian moral teaching, the opposite of pride is humility and, in his famous phrase, "Humility is not thinking less of yourself, but thinking of yourself less."

St. Augustine stresses the importance of humility in the study of the Bible, with the exemplars of a barbarian Christian slave, the apostle Paul, and the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8 (De Doctrina Christiana, prooem. 4-7 [hereafter DDC]). Both learner and teacher need to be humble, because they learn and teach what ultimately belongs to God (DDC, prooem. 7-8; 1 Cor. 4:7). Humility is a basic disposition of the interpreter of the Bible. The confidence of the exegete and preacher arises from the conviction that his or her mind depends on God absolutely (DDC, 1.1.1). Augustine argues that the interpreter of the Bible should proceed with humility, because only a humble person can grasp the truth of Scripture (DDC, 2.41.62).[8]

New Testament exhortations to humility are found in many places, for example "Blessed are the meek" (Matthew 5), "He who exalts himself will be humbled and he who humbles himself will be exalted" (Matthew 23:12), as well as (Philippians 2:1-17) and throughout the Book of James. Also in Jesus Christ's behavior in general and submission to unjust torture and execution in particular, are held up as examples of righteous humility: "Who, when he was reviled, did not revile: when he suffered, he threatened not: but delivered himself to him that judged him justly."1Peter 2:23,[9]

Humility is said to be a fit recipient of grace; according to the words of St. James, "God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble" (Proverbs 3:34, 1Peter 5:5,James 4:6.)

"True humility" is distinctly different from "false humility" which consists of deprecating one's own sanctity, gifts, talents, and accomplishments for the sake of receiving praise or adulation from others, as personified by the fictional character Uriah Heep created by Charles Dickens. In this context legitimate humility comprises the following behaviors and attitudes:

  • Submitting to God and legitimate authority
  • Recognizing virtues and talents that others possess, particularly those that surpass one's own, and giving due honor and, when required, obedience
  • Recognizing the limits of one's talents, ability, or authority; and, not reaching for what is beyond one's grasp

The vices opposed to humility are:

  • Pride (by reason or defect).
  • Too great obsequiousness or abjection of oneself; this would be considered an excess of humility, and could easily be derogatory to one's office or holy character; or it might serve only to pamper pride in others, by unworthy flattery, which would occasion their sins of tyranny, arbitrariness, and arrogance. The virtue of humility may not be practiced in any external way that would occasion vices in others.[10]

Catholicism[edit]

This Madonna of humility by Domenico di Bartolo expresses the symbolic duality of an earthly woman with humility, as well as a heavenly queen.[11]

Catholic texts view humility as annexed to the cardinal virtue of temperance.[10][12] It is viewed as a potential part of temperance because temperance includes all those virtues that restrain or express the inordinate movements of our desires or appetites.[10]

Humility is defined as, "A quality by which a person considering his own defects has a humble opinion of himself and willingly submits himself to God and to others for God's sake." St. Bernard defines it as, "A virtue by which a man knowing himself as he truly is, abases himself. Jesus Christ is the ultimate definition of Humility."[10]

Humility was a virtue extolled by Saint Francis of Assisi, and this form of Franciscan piety led to the artistic development of the Madonna of humility first used by them for contemplation.[13][14] The Virgin of humility sits on the ground, or upon a low cushion, unlike the Enthroned Madonna representations.[15] This style of painting spread quickly through Italy and by 1375 examples began to appear in Spain, France and Germany and it became the most popular among the styles of the early Trecento artistic period.[16]

St. Thomas Aquinas, a 13th-century philosopher and theologian in the Scholastic tradition, defines humility similarly as "the virtue of humility" that "consists in keeping oneself within one's own bounds, not reaching out to things above one, but submitting to one's superior" (Summa Contra Gent., bk. IV, ch. lv, tr. Joseph Rickaby).

Amish[edit]

In Amish thought and practice, the concept of Gelassenheit is a manifestation of humility of spirit.[citation needed]

Hinduism[edit]

In Sanskrit literature of Hinduism, the virtue of humility is explained with many terms, some of which use the root word, neti (sometimes spelled nati, nti, Sanskrit: नति).[17][18] Related words include veniti (विनति), samniti (संनति, humility towards), and the concept amanitvam, listed as the first virtue in the Bhagwad Gita.[19] Amanitvam is a fusion word for pridelessness and the virtue of humility.[20][21] Other related concepts are namrata (नम्रता), which means modest and humble behavior.

Different scholars have varying interpretations for the concept of amanitvam, humility, as virtue in the Bhagwad Gita.[22] For example, Prabhupada explains humility to mean one should not be anxious to have the satisfaction of being honored by others.[23] The material conception of life makes us very eager to receive honor from others, but from the point of view of a man in perfect knowledge—who knows that he is not this body—anything, honor or dishonor, pertaining to this body is useless. Jopson explains amanitvam, humility, as lack of arrogance and pride, and one of twenty six virtues in a human being that if perfected, leads one to a divine state of living and the ultimate truth.[24][25] Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita's subject is "the war within, the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious",[26] and "The language of battle is often found in the scriptures, for it conveys the strenuous, long, drawn-out campaign we must wage to free ourselves from the tyranny of the ego, the cause of all our suffering and sorrow".[27] To get in touch with your true self, whether you call that God, Brahman, etc., one has to let go of the ego. The Sanskrit word Ahamkara literally translates into The-sound-of-I, or quite simply the sense of the self or ego.

Gandhi interprets the concept of humility in Hinduism much more broadly, where humility is an essential virtue that must exist in a person for other virtues to emerge. To Gandhi, Truth can be cultivated, as well as Love, but Humility cannot be cultivated, Humility has to be one of the starting points. He claims, "Humility cannot be an observance by itself. For it does not lend itself to being practiced. It is however an indispensable test of ahimsa (non-violence)." Humility must not be confused with mere manners; a man may prostrate himself before another, but if his heart is full of bitterness for the other, it is not humility. Sincere humility is how one feels inside, a state of mind. A humble person is not himself conscious of his humility, claims Gandhi.[28][29]

Vivekananda, one of the scholars of Hinduism in 19th century, argues that concept of humility does not mean "crawling on all four and calling oneself a sinner." In Vivekananda's Hinduism, each human being is the Universal, recognizing and feeling oneness with everyone and everything else in the universe, without inferiority or superiority or any other bias, is the mark of humility.[30] To Radhakrishnan, humility in Hinduism is the non-judgmental state of mind when we are best able to learn, contemplate and understand everyone and everything else.[31]

Islam[edit]

In the Qur'an, Arabic words conveying the meaning of "humility" are used, and the very term "Islam" can be interpreted as meaning "surrender (to God), humility” – see S-L-M. Among the specific Arabic words used to convey "humility" are tawadu and khoshou:

Before thee We sent (messengers) to many nations, and We afflicted the nations with suffering and adversity, that they might learn humility. When the suffering reached them from us, why then did they not learn humility? On the contrary their hearts became hardened, and Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them.

—Quran, [6:42–43]

Successful indeed are the believers, those who humble themselves in their prayers.

—Quran, [23:1–2]

Scholars note humility before Allah and the will of Allah (Sharia) is demanded from every Muslim.[32]

Sikhism[edit]

  • Make contentment your ear-rings, humility your begging bowl, and meditation the ashes you apply to your body.
  • Listening and believing with love and humility in your mind.
  • In the realm of humility, the Word is Beauty.
  • Modesty, humility and intuitive understanding are my mother-in-law and father-in-law.
Sayings of Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Nanak, First Guru Of Sikhism

Humility is a central aspect of Sikhism preached as Nimrata.[33] Guru Nanak, the first Sikh guru established the system of the Langar, or communal kitchen, in order to demonstrate the need to share and have equality between all people.[34] According to Sikhism all people, equally, have to bow before God so there ought to be no hierarchies among or between people. According to Nanak the supreme purpose of human life is to reconnect with Akal (The Timeless One), however, egotism is the biggest barrier in doing this. Using the guru's teaching remembrance of nām (the divine Word)[35] leads to the end of egotism. The immediate fruit of humility is intuitive peace and pleasure. With humility they continue to meditate on the Lord, the treasure of excellence. The God-conscious being is steeped in humility. One whose heart is mercifully blessed with abiding humility. Sikhism treats humility as a begging bowl before the god.

Sikhs extend this belief in equality, and thus humility, towards all faith: "all religious traditions are equally valid and capable of enlightening their followers".[36] In addition to sharing with others Guru Nanak inspired people to earn an honest living without exploitation and also the need for remembrance of the divine name (God). Guru Nanak described living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" as being higher than a purely contemplative life.[37]

Meher Baba[edit]

The spiritual teacher Meher Baba held that humility is one of the foundations of devotional life: "Upon the altar of humility we must offer our prayers to God."[38] Baba also described the power of humility to overcome hostility: "True humility is strength, not weakness. It disarms antagonism and ultimately conquers it."[39] Finally, Baba emphasized the importance of being humble when serving others: "One of the most difficult things to learn is to render service without bossing, without making a fuss about it and without any consciousness of high and low. In the world of spirituality, humility counts at least as much as utility."[40]

Taoism[edit]

Here are my three treasures.
Guard and keep them!
The first is pity; the second, frugality; the third, refusal to be "foremost of all things under heaven".
For only he that pities is truly able to be brave;
Only he that is frugal is able to be profuse.
Only he that refuses to be foremost of all things
Is truly able to become chief of all Ministers.
At present your bravery is not based on pity, nor your profusion on frugality, nor your vanguard on your rear; and this is death.

(translation of the Tao Te Ching) by Arthur Waley 1958:225

Humility, in Taoism, is defined as a refusal to assert authority or a refusal to be first in anything and that the act of daring, in itself, is a refusal of wisdom and a rush to enjoin circumstances before you are ready. Along with compassion and frugality, humility is one the three treasures (virtues) in the possession of those who follow the Tao.[41]

The treasure of humility, in Chinese is a six-character phrase instead of a single word: Bugan wei tianxia xian 不敢為天下先 "not dare to be first/ahead in the world". Ellen Chen notes[42][41] that

The third treasure, daring not be at the world's front, is the Taoist way to avoid premature death. To be at the world's front is to expose oneself, to render oneself vulnerable to the world's destructive forces, while to remain behind and to be humble is to allow oneself time to fully ripen and bear fruit. This is a treasure whose secret spring is the fear of losing one's life before one's time. This fear of death, out of a love for life, is indeed the key to Taoist wisdom. (1989:209)

Furthermore, also according to the Tao Te Ching (77.4) a wise person acts without claiming the results as his; he achieves his merit and does not rest (arrogantly) in it: – he does not wish to display his superiority.[41]

Philosophical views of humility[edit]

Kant's view of humility has been defined as "that meta-attitude that constitutes the moral agent's proper perspective on himself as a dependent and corrupt but capable and dignified rational agent".[43] Kant's notion of humility relies on the centrality of truth and rational thought leading to proper perspective and can therefor be seen as emergent.

Mahatma Gandhi is attributed as suggesting that attempting to sustain truth without humility is doomed to cause it to become instead an "arrogant caricature" of truth.[44][45][46][47]

Criticism[edit]

While many religions and philosophies view humility as a virtue, some have been sharply critical of it, seeing it as opposed to individualism, specifically the value and excellence of the individual.

Nietzsche views humility as a strategy used by the weak to avoid being destroyed by the strong. In Twilight of the Idols he writes: "When stepped on, a worm doubles up. That is clever. In that way he lessens the probability of being stepped on again. In the language of morality: humility." Nietzsche argues that the slave morality of Christianity has so infected Western culture that now even the masters view humility as a virtue. His idealized Übermensch would be more apt to roam around unfettered by pretensions of humility, proud of his stature and power, but not reveling idly in it, and certainly not displaying hubris.

Ayn Rand's Objectivism sees self-abasement as antithetical to morality. In her book The Virtue of Selfishness, Rand states that "humility is not a recognition of one's failings, but a rejection of morality."[48]

Humility and leadership[edit]

Recent research suggests that humility is a quality of certain types of leaders. For example, Jim Collins and his colleagues found that a certain type of leader, whom they term "level 5", possesses humility and fierce resolve.[49] Humility is being studied as a trait that can enhance leadership effectiveness. The research suggests that humility is multi-dimensional and includes self-understanding and awareness, openness, and perspective taking.[50][51][52]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Humble" from Merriam-Webster, m-w.com
  2. ^ Thomas Scheff and Suzanne Retzinger, Emotions and Violence: shame and rage in destructive conflicts, ISBN 0-595-21190-9, page 7
  3. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/160968/jewish/What-is-Humility.htm
  4. ^ http://www.chabad.org/parshah/article_cdo/aid/1932762/jewish/Greatness-is-Humility.htm
  5. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/83807/jewish/On-Humility.htm
  6. ^ http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/1218750/jewish/Humility.htm
  7. ^ Mere Christianity, C.S. Lewis, ISBN 97800652920
  8. ^ Woo, B. Hoon (2013). "Augustine’s Hermeneutics and Homiletics in De doctrina christiana". Journal of Christian Philosophy 17: 99–103. 
  9. ^ Humility, The Protestant theological and ecclesiastical encyclopedia, Herzog et al (Editors), Vol 2, 1860, pp 598-599
  10. ^ a b c d Catholic Encyclopedia, "Humilty", newadvent.org
  11. ^ Art and music in the early modern period by Franca Trinchieri Camiz, Katherine A. McIver ISBN 0-7546-0689-9 page 15 [1]
  12. ^ Humility, The Catholic encyclopedia, Herbermann et al. (Editors), Vol 7, 1910, pp 543-544
  13. ^ A history of ideas and images in Italian art by James Hall 1983 ISBN 0-06-433317-5 page 223
  14. ^ Iconography of Christian Art by Gertrud Schiller 1971 ASIN: B0023VMZMA page 112
  15. ^ Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN 0-313-24658-0 page 174
  16. ^ Painting in Florence and Siena after the Black Death by Millard Meiss 1979 ISBN 0-691-00312-2 pages 132-133
  17. ^ Sanskrit translations for Humility English-Sanskrit Dictionary, Germany
  18. ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, see explanation under the term नति [ nati ], France
  19. ^ Bhagwad Gita 13.8-12 See transliteration, and two commentaries.
  20. ^ Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern edited by K. R. Sundararajan, Bithika Mukerji; ISBN 978-8120819375; see pages 403-405
  21. ^ [ ]
  22. ^ Gupta, B. (2006). BHAGAVAD GĪTĀ AS DUTY AND VIRTUE ETHICS. Journal of Religious Ethics, 34(3), 373-395.
  23. ^ BHAGAVAD GITA AS IT IS - By His Divine Grace A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.
  24. ^ Tanya Jopson, Human Energy-Body Awareness: How Our Energy Body & Vibrational Frequency Create Our Everyday Life, ISBN 978-1466333413, see Divine Qualities under Glossary
  25. ^ Bhawuk, D. P. (2011). Epistemology and Ontology of Indian Psychology. In Spirituality and Indian Psychology (pp. 163-184). Springer New York.
  26. ^ Eknath Easwaran, The Bhagavad Gita (2007), ISBN 978-1-58638-019-9 p. 15.
  27. ^ Eknath Easwaran, The End of Sorrow: The Bahagavad Gita for Daily Living (vol 1) (1993), ISBN 978-0-915132-17-1 p. 24.
  28. ^ Humility The Gita and Satyagraha; The Philosophy of Non-violence and The Doctrine of the Sword, SELECTED WRITINGS OF MAHATMA GANDHI
  29. ^ Stephen S. Hall, Wisdom, ISBN 978-0-307-26910-2; see Chapter 8
  30. ^ Swami Vivekananda, The Complete Works of the Swami Vivekananda, Volume 1 (1915); see page 343
  31. ^ Radhakrishnan & Muirhead, Contemporary Indian Philosophy (1936), Allen 7 Sons (London)
  32. ^ Coulson, N. J. (1957), The state and the individual in Islamic law, International and comparative law quarterly, 6 (1), pp 49-60
  33. ^ Five Virtues
  34. ^ Thaker, Aruna (2012). Multicultural Handbook of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. John Wiley & Sons. p. 31. ISBN 9781118350461. 
  35. ^ McLean, George (15 Jun 2008). Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian: 12. 1565182480: Council for Research in Values &. p. 599. 
  36. ^ Singh Kalsi, Sewa (2007). Sikhism. London: Bravo Ltd. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85733-436-4. 
  37. ^ Marwha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth, Religion Self and Emotions. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 205. ISBN 818069268X. 
  38. ^ Baba, Meher (1967). Discourses. 3. San Francisco: Sufism Reoriented. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-880619-09-4.
  39. ^ Baba, Meher (1957). Life at Its Best. San Francisco: Sufism Reoriented. pp. 25-26. ISBN 978-0-525-47434-0.
  40. ^ Baba, Meher (1933). The Sayings of Shri Meher Baba. London: The Circle Editorial Committee. pp. 11-12.
  41. ^ a b c Lao Tzu, Jane English, and Gia-Fu Feng (1997), Tao Te Ching, Vintage Books, ISBN 978-0679776192
  42. ^ *Chen, Ellen M., 1989, The Te Tao Ching: A New Translation with Commentary, Paragon House.
  43. ^ [2]
  44. ^ Gandhi on Brahmacharya, geocities.com
  45. ^ Epigrams from Gandhiji, mkgandhi.org
  46. ^ Rachel Cohon, Hume's Moral Philosophy Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (August 2010)
  47. ^ André Vauchez (2002), Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, see article on Humility, James Clarke & Co, ISBN 9780227679319
  48. ^ Rand, Ayn. Ayn Rand Reader. (London: Penguin, 1999). ISBN 9781101137253.
  49. ^ Collins J. (2001). Level 5 leadership: The triumph of humility and fierce resolve. Harvard Business Review, 66-76. Accessed online on August 20, 2010 via: http://www.hr-newcorp.com/articles/Level5%20Leadership_Jim%20Collins.pdf
  50. ^ Morris, J. A., Brotheridge, C. M., & Urbanski, J. C. (2005). Bringing humility to leadership: Antecedents and consequences of leader humility. Human Relations, 58, 1323-1350.
  51. ^ Nielsen, R., Marrone, J. A., & Slay, H. S. (2010). A new look at humility: Exploring the humility concept and its role in socialized charismatic leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17, 33-43.
  52. ^ Shane Lopez (Editor), Humility, The encyclopedia of positive psychology, Vol 1, Wiler-Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4051-6125-1

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]