Humoj family

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Humoj family
Current region region of Baleč and Drivast (modern day Albania)
Notable members Radič, Andrija, Kojčin, Radič II, Marin, Michael, Piero

The Humoj family (Humoja, Omoy, Moia)[1] was a noble Albanian[2] family best known as 15th century pronoiars of Venetian Republic in the region of Baleč and Drivast (modern day Albania).

Family history[edit]

Position of Baleč and Drivast in 1448

When Baleč came under control of the Republic of Venice it became a pronoia of Radič I Humoj who later controlled the fortress of Petra in the region of Polat. According to the Venetian reports, Radič Humoj was a prominent pronoier in the region of Scutari in July 1403.[3] Donato de Porto, a governor of Scutari, appointed Radič as pronoier of Baleč in period 1402—1403 and Senate confirmed his decision on 16 September 1404.[4]

Radič Humoj, like many other local Venetian pronoiers, supported Balša III during his war with the Venetian Republic in order to save his position and property. Balša III had some initial success at the beginning of 1405 and captured the whole Scutari region except the Scutari fortress itself. The Venetians managed to recapture Scutari region in the second half of 1405 and to take control over former Radič's possessions. Although Radič Humoj again pledged loyalty to Venice, they refused to return to him his previous pronoias. Only after Radič had been killed while fighting for Venice and after the governor of Scutari informed the Senate about his merits, the Venetian Senate decided on 19 September 1410 to appoint Radič's sons on his earlier position.[5]

After Radič's death, the Venetians gave Baleč to his brother Andrija (who was then voivoda of the area north of the Shkoder) and his son Kojčin. This was confirmed by the Venetian Senate on 13 February 1419.[6][7] During the Second Scutari War Andrija Humoj joined Serbian despot while other members of Humoj family remained loyal to Venetians.[8]

Kojčin Humoj was married to a daughter of Zuan Anglezi, a Venetian officer in Shkoder fortress, and they had two sons, Radič (Radič II Humoj) and Marin. Radič II Humoj married a daughter of Petar Span in 1433 and became pronoier of the village Serel in Bar district.[9] When Kojčin died, Venice gave his pronoia to somebody else and promised to the young Radič II Humoj in November 1441 to give him some pronoia as soon as the pronoier in charge would have died.[10] Since 1441, Radič and Marin were pronoiers of Gleros near Shkoder, which once belonged to the Bonzi.[11]

When Radič Humoj rebelled against the Venetians, Peter Span requested the Venetian Senate to give him control over Radič's fortress Petra.[12]

In 1443 Michael Humoj and his three brothers were pronoiars of the village with four houses, Passo Bianco in Drivast.[13][14] When Passo Bianco became object of dispute among the Humoj brothers, the Venetian Senate decided in 1445 that only Michael would have remained pronoiar of that village.[15]

Struggle against Skanderbeg[edit]

Andrija and Kojčin Humoj, together with Simeon Vulkata, led the pro-Venetian alliance against Skanderbeg, fighting particularly fiercely for the control over Baleč and Drivast in 1447.[16] Members of many local families participated in war on the Venetian side. These were Vasilije Ugrin, Zapa family (Jovan and his brother), Pedantari family (seven Pedantari brothers and many other), Moneta family (three sons of Rajko Moneta), Malonši family (Petar with his two sons), Buša Sornja from Dagnum and many others.[17] Koja Humoj was killed during a charge on Sati (castle).[18]

Struggle against the Ottoman Empire[edit]

Between 1456 and August 1457 a small war was waged between two branches of the Dukagjini family. Between Ottoman supported Lekë and Pal Dukagjini on one side and Draga Dukagjini, son of Nicholas Dukagjini, supported by Venice.[19] In this war Humoj family, together with Skanderbeg and Moneta family served Venetian forces.[20]

Andrija Humoj travelled to Venice in 1464 to affirm his family's claims in front of the Venetian Senate emphasizing the deeds of his ancestors.[21] He again visited Venice in 1472 and during the Siege of Shkodra in 1474 when all of Humoj ownership titles were confirmed once more.[22] The members of Humoj family did not enjoy their confirmed positions for long because many of them, like many members of the Moneta family also, died fighting against the Ottoman Empire until the Ottoman capture of Shkoder in 1479. Among them were Koja, Tanush, Duka, Michael und Piero Humoj.[23] In January 1478, before the siege has started, the wife of Koja Humoj and their daughter went to Venice together with wives and children of many other noblemen from Scutari, including the wife of Rajko Moneta and five children.[24] When Andreas Humoj committed a treason he was sentenced to death by the Venetian commander-in-chief Triadan Gritti and executed by a man from Tuzi.[25]

After the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Constantinople which ceded Shkodra to the Ottoman Empire, the members of Humoj family together with the rest of the citizens of Shkoder emigrated to Italy.

Humoj family in literature[edit]

Marin Barleti mentions Blasius Humoi as a knight in Shkoder in his work The Siege of Shkodra (Latin: De obsidione Scodrensi, Venice, 1504).[26] Girolamo de Rada mentions Cola Humoj as one of the knights fighting in the Siege of Shkoder along with Milosao, the prince of Shkoder.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Acta Albaniae Veneta saeculorum XIV et XV. (in Latin). Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Giuseppe Valentini. 1967. p. 58. Retrieved 28 January 2012. "Humoja, Moia, Omoy, fam. nob. Drivast. vel. Scodrena" 
  2. ^ Arshi Pipa, Albanian Literature: Social Perspectives[page needed]
  3. ^ Serbian Academy of Science 1980, p. 43

    Радич Хумој био је врло истакнути пронијар у Скадарском крају

  4. ^ Serbian Academy of Science 1980, p. 43

    Радич Хумој потврдио је у звању Еустахијев наследник Донат де Порто (1402—1403) а затим и сам Сенат 16 септембра 1404.

  5. ^ Serbian Academy of Science 1980, p. 45
  6. ^ Serbian Academy of Science 1980, p. 49

    Радич Хумој је умро пре но што је пописан скадарски крај. Балеч је, после њега, припао његовом брату Андрији, који је био војвода предела изнад Скадра, и сину Којчину.

  7. ^ Rivista di studi bizantini e neoellenici, Volume 7. Rome: Istituto per l'Europa orientale (Rome, Italy), Associazione nazionale per gli studi bizantini. 1953. p. 506. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  8. ^ M. Bešić, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 145, OCLC 175122851, "Андрији Хумоју, који је за разлику од својих рођака, вјерних поданика Републике, пришао током рата деспоту и кога су Млечани сматрали „одметником"." 
  9. ^ Antonović, Miloš (2003), Town and district in littoral of Zeta and northern Albania in 14th and 15th century (in Serbian), Belgrade: Istorijski institut, p. 216, ISBN 9788677430313, OCLC 55953999, "Наиме, женећи се 1433 године ћерком Петра Спана, Радич II Хумој је добио село Серељи у барском дистрикту" 
  10. ^ Serbian Academy of Science 1980, p. 53

    Зуанова ћерка. Била је удата за Којчина Хомоја, који је такође умро и оставио јој два мала сина, Радича и Марина. Као дечаци нису могли одлазити у Млетке па је Сенат уступио њихове поседе другима. Тек у новембру 1441 стигао је млади Радич Хумој у Млетке да заштити своја права. Сенат му је ставио у изглед да ће се његово питање некако решити после смрти садашњих држалаца поседа.

  11. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 491

    Radic und Maran Humoj verwalteten seit 1441 Gleros bei Skutari, das einst den Bonzi gehört hatte.

  12. ^ Serbian Academy of Science 1980, p. 43
  13. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 490

    Michael Humoj als Grundbesitzer zu berücksichtigen; er war Pronoiar im Drivastinischen, im Dorf Passo bianco (alb. Shtegu bardhe) (1443).

  14. ^ Božić, Ivan (1979), Nemirno pomorje XV veka (in Serbian), Beograd: Srpska književna zadruga, p. 291, OCLC 5845972, "... Албанац Михајло Хумој добио је са својом браћом један заселак са четири куће Пасо Бланко (Бели Пролаз) - у пронију" 
  15. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 490

    Dieses Amt teilte er mit seinen drei Brüdern; als es zum Streit unter ihnen kam, sprach der Senat Michael als dem ältesten die Würde eines „caput et proniarius" auf Lebenszeit zu (1445).

  16. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 490

    In einer getreidearmen Gegend war dies ein Anschlag auf die Lebensgrundlagen der Gemeinde. Venedig ging in dieser Frage äusserst behutsam vor, denn Koja und Andreas Humoj hatten der Signoria bedeutende Dienste geleistet. Zusammen mit Simeon Vulkata waren sie an der Spitze der venezianischen Verbände gegen Skanderbeg ins Feld gezogen (1447). In ihren Machtgebieten um Balezo und Drivasto wurde besonders heftig gekämpft.

  17. ^ Univerzitet u Beogradu. Filozofski fakultet (1964). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta, Volume 8 (in Serbian). Belgrade: Naučno delo. p. 419. Retrieved 28 January 2012. "Многи домаћи људи учествовали су у борбама на Млетачкој страни. Која Хумој... Василије Угрин,...Јован Запа и његов брат...седморице браће Педантари...више њихових рођака...три сина Рајка Монете...Петар Малонши са два сина...и Буша Сорња из Дања...Другима и нема трага..." 
  18. ^ Univerzitet u Beogradu. Filozofski fakultet (1964). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta, Volume 8 (in Serbian). Belgrade: Naučno delo. p. 419. Retrieved 28 January 2012. "Која Хумој је погинуо за време јуриша на Сати" 
  19. ^ Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2001), Das venezianische Albanien (1392-1479), München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH München, p. 311, ISBN 3-486-56569--9, "Der nach 1456 ausbrechende Kampf um Dagno wurde auch als Familienzwist der Dukagjin ausgetragen, in dem sich Anhänger der Osmanen, Paul und Leka, und Venedigs, Nikolas Sohn Draga, gegenüberstanden." 
  20. ^ Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2001), Das venezianische Albanien (1392-1479), München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH München, p. 311, ISBN 3-486-56569--9, "Daneben bot der Krieg Skanderbeg die Gelegenheit, seine Führungsstellung in den Bergen der Dukagjin zu erneuern und gleichzeitig Venedig einen Dienst zu erweisen. Der Kleinkrieg wurde mit grosser Heftigkeit geführt, wobei sich bekannte Parteigänger der Republik wie die Moneta und Humoj besonders auszeichneten." 
  21. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 491

    Gleichsam zur Bestatigung der Anspruche seiner Familie kam Andreas Humoj im Jahre 1464 nach Venedig und erzählte von den Taten seiner Vorfahren.

  22. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 491

    Auf den Hohepunkt des Kampfes um Skutari traf eine weitere Gesandtschaft der Humoj in Venedig ein: sie fasste die Geschichte einer Familie zusammen, die viele Jahrzehnte für Venedig gekämpft und dabei viele Angehörige verloren hatte. Mit Stolz verwiesen die Humoj darauf, dass sie schon in dritter Generation der Signoria dienten.144 Sie erhielten nochmals alle Besitztitel bestätigt.

  23. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 491

    Lange erfreuten sie sich aber nicht mehr ihrer Landerein und Amter. Wie die Moneta entrichteten die Humoj einen hohen Blutzoll im Türkenkrieg: unter den Gefallenen der Schlachten um Skutari waren auch Koja, Tanush, Duka, Michael und Piero Humoj.

  24. ^ Lucia Nadin Bassani (2008). Migrazioni e integrazione: il caso degli Albanesi a Venezia (1479-1552). Bulzoni. p. 22. ISBN 978-88-7870-340-7. Retrieved 30 January 2013. "Nel gennaio 1478 arrivavano a Venezia: la moglie di Nicolò Moneta, voivoda (ossia capo, governatore) di Scutari con i suoi cinque figli; la moglie di Choie Moi (Humoj) con la figlia;" 
  25. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 492

    Rätselhaft erscheint vor diesem Hintergrund das Schicksal Andreas Humojs: Er beging verrat und wurde von Generalkapitan Triadan Gritti zum tode verurteilt. Das urteil vollstreckte ein Tuzi.

  26. ^ a b Arshi Pipa (1978). Albanian literature: social perspectives. p. 27. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 

Sources[edit]