Hundredweight

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The hundredweight (abbreviation: cwt), formerly also known as the centum weight or quintal, is an English, imperial, and US customary unit of weight or mass of various values. Its present value continues to differ between the American and imperial systems. The two values are distinguished in American English as the "short" and "long" hundredweight and in British English as the "cental" and the "hundredweight".

  • The short hundredweight or cental of 100 lbs. (45.359237 kg) is used in the US[1] and Canada.
  • The long or imperial hundredweight of 8 stone (112 lbs. or 50.802345 kg) sees informal use in the imperial system[2] but was banned from commercial use in 1985.

Under both conventions, there are 20 hundredweight in a ton, producing a "short ton" of 2000 lbs. and a "long ton" of 2240 lbs.

History[edit]

The hundredweight has had many different values. In England in around 1300, various different "hundreds" (centem in Medieval Latin) were defined. The Weights and Measures Act of 1835 formally established the present imperial hundredweight of 112 lbs. The Weights and Measures Act of 1985 banned the use of measures by "cental", "hundredweight", or "quintal" in trade.

The United States and Canada came to use the term "hundredweight" to refer to a unit of 100 lbs. This measure was specifically banned from British use—upon risk of being sued for fraud—by the Weights and Measures Act of 1824 but, in 1879, the measure was legalized under the name "cental" in response to legislative pressure from British merchants importing wheat and tobacco from the United States.[3]

Use[edit]

The short hundredweight is commonly used in the US in the sale of livestock and some cereal grains[4] and oilseeds, paper, and concrete additives and on some commodities in futures exchanges[5]

A few decades ago, commodities weighed in terms of long hundredweight included cattle, cattle fodder, fertilizers, coal, some industrial chemicals, other industrial materials, and so on. However, since increasing metrication in most English-speaking countries, it is now less used. Church bell ringers use the unit commonly,[6] although church bell manufacturers are increasingly moving over to the metric system.[7]

Older blacksmiths' anvils are often stamped with a three-digit number indicating their total weight in hundredweight, quarter-hundredweight, and pounds. Thus, an anvil stamped "1.1.8" will weigh 148 lbs (112 lbs + 28 lbs + 8 lbs).[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ NIST Guide to the SI.
  2. ^ Text of the UK Units of Measurement Regulations 1995 as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute Law Database , which reiterates for hundredweight the Text of the Weights and Measures Act 1985 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute Law Database .
  3. ^ Chapter VII of the book Men and measures: a history of weights and measures, ancient and modern, by Edward Nicholson (published 1912). Downloadable at Archive.org.
  4. ^ William J. Murphy. "Tables for Weights and Measurement: Crops". University of Missouri Extension. http://extension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/crops/g04020.htm
  5. ^ "Rough Rice Futures - Contract specifications". Agricultural products. CME Group. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  6. ^ "Scope, Conventions, Abbreviations, etc". Doves Guide for Church Bell Ringers. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  7. ^ "Turret Bells". Whitechapel Bell Foundry Limited. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  8. ^ "Anvils-6: Marked Weight of Anvils". Getting Started in Blacksmithing. Retrieved 15 December 2014.