Hungarian Braille

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Hungarian Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Hungarian
Parent systems
Braille
  • Hungarian Braille
Print basis
Hebrew alphabet

The braille alphabet used to write Hungarian is based on the international norm for the 26 basic letters of the Latin script. However, the letters for q and z have been replaced, to increase the symmetry of the accented letters of the Hungarian alphabet, which are largely innovative to Hungarian braille.[1][2]

Alphabet[edit]

The Hungarian alphabet is:

A Á B C Cs D Dz Dzs E É F G Gy H I Í J K L Ly M N Ny O Ó Ö Ő P (Q) R S Sz T Ty U Ú Ü Ű V (W) (X) (Y) Z Zs

The letters that conform to traditional braille are:

⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
a
⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b
⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
c
⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
d
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
e
⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
f
⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
g
⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
h
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
i
⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
j
⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
k
⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
l
⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
m
⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
n
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
o
⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)
p
⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
r
⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
s
⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
t
⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
u
⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
v
⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
w
⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
x
⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
y

The accented vowel letters are derived from their base letters through stretching or reflection as follows. The traditional letter for q (which is not part of the basic Hungarian alphabet) has been reassigned to ö, and an unused pattern has been assigned to ü:

⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
a
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
e
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
i
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
o
⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
ö
⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
u
⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)
ü
⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
q
⠘ (braille pattern dots-45)
ä
⠈ (braille pattern dots-4)
á
⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
é
⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
í
⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
ó
⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)
ő
⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)
ú
⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456)
ű

This creates the following symmetrical pattern for the umlauted vowels:

⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
ö
⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)
ő
⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)
ü
⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456)
ű

(Ä is not part of the basic Hungarian alphabet.)

The consonant digraphs are derived from their base letters as follows. The traditional letter for z has been replaced, and is used for a parenthesis. As with the accented vowels, the majority of digraphs are created through reflection:

⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
c
⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
g
⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
l
⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
n
⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
t
⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
s
⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
z
⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
cs
⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
gy
⠸ (braille pattern dots-456)
ly
⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246)
ny
⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
ty
⠱ (braille pattern dots-156)
sz
⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
zs
⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
ccs
⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
ggy
⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456)
lly
⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246) ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246)
nny
⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
tty
⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156)
ssz
⠜ (braille pattern dots-345) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
zzs

This creates the following pattern among the sibilants:

⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
s
⠱ (braille pattern dots-156)
sz
⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
z
⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
zs

Punctuation[edit]

Unlike English or French Braille, Hungarian Braille has separate opening and closing symbols for both parentheses and quotation marks.

⠂ (braille pattern dots-2)
,
⠄ (braille pattern dots-3)
.
⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
 ;
⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)
 :
⠤ (braille pattern dots-36)
-
⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3)
'
⠢ (braille pattern dots-26)
 ?
⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
 !
⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
„     ”
⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
(     )
⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2)
/

Mathematics and computer notation[edit]

⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456)
number sign (#)
⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
Dollar sign ($)
⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
percent sign (%)
⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
ampersant (&)
⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
plus sign (+)
⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
asterisk / multiplication sign (*)
⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2)
division sign (/)
⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356)
equality sign (=)
⠘ (braille pattern dots-45)
at sign (@)
⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
backslash (\)
⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
caret (^)
⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36)
underscore (_)
⠈ (braille pattern dots-4)
`
⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
tilde / similarity sign (~)
⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
paragraph sign (§)
⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
euro (€)
⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
bullet sign (•)
⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
degree (°)

Roman Numerals[edit]

the roman numerals use the capital letters of i, v, x, l, c, m

⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
I
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
II
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
III
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
IV
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
V
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
VI
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
VII
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
VIII
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
IX
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
X
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
XI
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
XX
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
XXI
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
XXX
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
XXXI
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
XL
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
XLI
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
L
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
LI
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
LX
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
LXI
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
C
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
CI
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
M
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
MI

Formatting[edit]

⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)
(num.)
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)
(caps)

References[edit]