Hungarian diaspora

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Areas with ethnic Hungarian majorities in the neighboring countries of Hungary, according to László Sebők.[1]

Hungarian diaspora (Magyar diaspora) is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside of current-day Hungary.

There are two main groups of the diaspora. In the first one are those, who are autochthonous to their homeland, and live outside Hungary since the border changes of the post-World War I Treaty of Trianon of 1920.[note 1] The victorious forces redrew the borders of Hungary so that it runs through Hungarian majority areas. As a consequence, 3.3 million Hungarians found themselves outside the new borders. These Hungarians are usually not counted into the term "Hungarian diaspora", regardless, they are listed in this article. The other main group are the emigrants, who left Hungary at various times (e.g., the Hungarian Revolution of 1956). There has been some emigration since Hungary joined the EU, especially to countries such as Germany,[2] although this has not been as drastic as for certain other Eastern European countries like Poland or Romania.

Distribution by country[edit]

Country Hungarian population Note Article
Neighbor countries of Hungary
Romania Romania 1,227,623 (2011)[3] (not including Csángós[4]) Autochthonous in Transylvania,[5] Csángó people in Moldavia Hungarians in Romania
Slovakia Slovakia 458,467 (2011)[6] Autochthonous[7] Hungarians in Slovakia
Serbia Serbia 253,899 (2011)[8] Autochthonous in Vojvodina Hungarians in Vojvodina
Ukraine Ukraine 156,600 (2001) Autochthonous in Zakarpattia Oblast Hungarians in Ukraine
Austria Austria 40,583 (2001)[9] Autochthonous in Burgenland Hungarians in Austria
Croatia Croatia 14,048 (2011)[10] Autochthonous in Croatia, except Istria and Dalmatia. Hungarians of Croatia
Slovenia Slovenia 6,243 (2001) Autochthonous in Eastern Slovenia Hungarian Slovenes
Other countries
United States USA 1,563,081 (2006)[11] Immigrants Hungarian American
Canada Canada 315,510 (2006)[12] Immigrants Hungarian Canadians
Israel Israel 200,000 to 250,000 (2000s) Most immigrants are Hungarian Jews
Germany Germany 120,000 (2004)[13] Immigrants Hungarians in Germany
France France 100,000 to 200,000 (2000s)[14] Immigrants Hungarians in France
United Kingdom United Kingdom 52,250 (2011) [15] [16] [17] Immigrants Hungarians in the United Kingdom
Brazil Brazil 80,000 (2002)[18] Immigrants Hungarian Brazilian
Russia Russia 76,500 (2002) Immigrants
Australia Australia 67,616(2006)[19] Immigrants Hungarian Australian
Chile Chile 50,000 (2012)[20] Immigrants Hungarians in Chile
Argentina Argentina 40,000 to 50,000 (2000s) Immigrants Hungarians in Argentina
Switzerland Switzerland 20,000 to 25,000 (2000s) Immigrants
Czech Republic Czech Republic 14,672 (2001) Immigrants
Turkey Turkey 6,800 (2001) Immigrants
Republic of Ireland Ireland 3,328 (2006)[21] Immigrants
Poland Poland 1,728 (2011)[22] Immigrants
New Zealand New Zealand 1,476 (2006) Immigrants Hungarian New Zealander
Hungary TOTAL 4.9 - 5.1 million

Hungarian immigration patterns to Western Europe increased in the 1990s and especially since 2004, after Hungary's admission in the European Union. Thousands of Hungarians from Hungary sought available work through guest-worker contracts in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Finland, Sweden, Spain and Portugal.

Hungarian citizenship[edit]

A proposal supported by the DAHR to grant Hungarian citizenship to Hungarians living in Romania but without meeting Hungarian-law residency requirements was narrowly defeated at a 2004 referendum in Hungary.[23] The referendum was invalid because of not enough participants. After the failure of the 2004 referendum, the leaders of the Hungarian ethnic parties in the neighboring countries formed the HTMSZF organization in January 2005, as an instrument lobbying for preferential treatment in the granting of Hungarian citizenship.[24]

In 2010 some amendments were passed in Hungarian law facilitating an accelerated naturalization process for ethnic Hungarians living abroad; among other changes, the residency-in-Hungary requirement was waved.[25] Between 2011 and 2012, 200,000 applicants took advantage of the new, accelerated naturalization process;[26] there were another 100,000 applications pending in the summer of 2012.[27] As of February 2013, the Hungarian government has granted almost 400,000 citizenships to Hungarians ‘beyond the borders’.[28] In June 2013, Deputy Prime Minister Zsolt Semjén announced that he expects the number to reach about half a million by the end of the year.[29]

The citizenship new law, which took effect on 1 January 2011, did not grant however the right to vote, even in national elections, to Hungarian citizens unless they also reside in Hungary on a permanent basis.[30] A month later however, the Fidesz government announced that it intended to grant the right to vote to its new citizens.[31] In 2014, the Hungarian citizens from abroad are able to participate in the parliamentary elections without Hungarian residency, however they can not vote for a candidate running for the seat in the single-seat constituency but for a party list.

In May 2010, Slovakia announced it would strip Slovak citizenship from anyone applying for the Hungarian one.[32] Romania's President Traian Băsescu declared in October 2010 that "We have no objections to the adoption by the Hungarian government and parliament of a law making it easier to grant Hungarian citizenship to ethnic Hungarians living abroad."[33]

Famous people of Hungarian descent[edit]

Country Name Occupation Source
List is sorted alphabetically.
United States United States Drew Barrymore entertainer/actress [34]
United States United States Adrien Brody entertainer/actor [35]
United States United States Tony Curtis entertainer/actor [36]
United States United States Louis C.K. entertainer/comedian [37]
United States United States Rodney Dangerfield entertainer/comedian [38]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Stephen Fry entertainer/comedian [39]
United States United States Zsa Zsa Gabor entertainer/actress [40]
United States United States Peter Carl Goldmark scientist/inventor
Sweden Sweden
Germany Germany
George de Hevesy scientist/inventor [41]
United States United States John George Kemeny scientist/inventor [42]
United States United States Paul Nemenyi scientist/mathematician [43]
United States United States John von Neumann mathematician [44][45]
United States United States Joaquin Phoenix entertainer/actor [46]
United States United States Joseph Pulitzer journalist [47]
United States United States Gene Simmons entertainer/musician [48]
United States United States Jerry Seinfeld entertainer/comedian [48]
France France Nicolas Sarkozy 23rd President of the French Republic [49]
United States United States Leó Szilárd scientist/inventor [50]
United States United States Edward Teller scientist/inventor [51]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ During World War II, some areas were regained by Hungary, but lost with the 1947 Treaty of Paris

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sebők László's ethnic map of Central and Southeastern Europe
  2. ^ See page 21 of this report: [1]
  3. ^ 2011 Romanian census
  4. ^ 1,370 persons declared themselves Csángós at the 2002 Romanian census. Some estimates of the Csángó population run higher. For instance, the Council of Europe suggests a figure as high as 260,000.
  5. ^ Patrick Heenan, Monique Lamontagne (1999). The Central and Eastern Europe Handbook. Taylor & Francis. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-57958-089-6. 
  6. ^ Slovak census 2011
  7. ^ Roseann Duenas Gonzalez, Ildiko Melis (2001). Language Ideologies: Critical Perspectives on the Official English Movement. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-8058-4054-4. 
  8. ^ Serbian Census 2011
  9. ^ Austrian census 2001
  10. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Croatia : Overview (2001 census data)". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. July 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  11. ^ 2006 Community Survey
  12. ^ Canadian Census 2006
  13. ^ Hungarians in Germany
  14. ^ Hungarians in France
  15. ^ "Census 2011 - Country of birth (expanded)". Office for National Statistics. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland - Country of Birth (detailed)". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  17. ^ "Census 2011 - Country of Birth - Full Detail_QS206NI". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  18. ^ Hungarians in Brazil
  19. ^ Estimation 2002 Hungarian-Australians according to national census 2006, Australia.
  20. ^ Hungarian Immigration in Latin America
  21. ^ Irish census 2006
  22. ^ Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna. Narodowy Spis Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 (National Census of Population and Housing 2011). GUS. 2013. p. 264.
  23. ^ Rogers Brubaker (2006). Nationalist Politics and Everyday Ethnicity in a Transylvanian Town. Princeton University Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-691-12834-4. 
  24. ^ Tristan James Mabry; John McGarry; Margaret Moore; Brendan O'Leary. Divided Nations and European Integration. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8122-4497-7. 
  25. ^ Mária M. Kovács, Judit Tóth, Country report: Hungary, Revised and updated April 2013, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, page 1 and 7
  26. ^ Mária M. Kovács, Judit Tóth, Country report: Hungary, Revised and updated April 2013, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, page 11
  27. ^ Mária M. Kovács, Judit Tóth, Country report: Hungary, Revised and updated April 2013, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, page 18
  28. ^ Hungary and Romania. Flag wars, 21 Feb 2013, The Economist
  29. ^ Open wound. Trianon remembered 93 years on, Budapest Times, 12 June 2013
  30. ^ New double citizenship law does not change voting rights, EUobserver, 28.05.2010
  31. ^ Dual citizenship at its logical conclusion. Policy Solutions’ analysis: A vote for lost Hungarians is a vote for the right, Budapest Times, 7 February 2011
  32. ^ Slovaks retaliate over Hungarian citizenship law, BBC, 26 May 2010
  33. ^ Romania backs Hungarian citizenship law, 18 October 2010, AFP text syndicated to eubusiness.com.
  34. ^ her mother is a Hungarian immigrant.[2] "She is half Hungarian on her mother's side" [3] "Drews Mother - Jaid Barrymore (nee Ildiko Jaid Mako) [was] Born on 8 May 1946 in Brannenburg, West Germany in a camp for displaced persons. Jaids parents (Drew's grandparents) were Hungarian."
  35. ^ Fox, Chloe (November 12, 2006). "The prime of Adrien Brody". London: Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved December 13, 2006. 
  36. ^ [4] [5] "Born Bernard Schwartz in 1925 to Jewish-Hungarian parents, Curtis grew up in New York’s matinee movie-palaces..."
  37. ^ Vogel, Laura (May 27, 2007). "Louis C.K.". New York Post. Retrieved November 10, 2010. 
  38. ^ Rodney Dangerfield: A Lifetime of No Respect but Plenty of Sex and Drugs by Rodney Dangerfield "The whole family had come to America from Hungary when my mother was four. My mother's father--my grandfather--was almost never referred to in that house. Rumor has it he's still in Hungary--and still drinking."
  39. ^ ""Who Do You Think You Are?", Series Two: Celebrity Gallery". 
  40. ^ [6] "Zsa Zsa Gabor born, Budapest Hungary. Though some sources say 1918, 1919, or 1920. 1936 Elected Miss Hungary."
  41. ^ George de Hevesy: life and work : a biography, Hilde Levi, A. Hilger, 1985
  42. ^ Weibel, Peter (2005). Beyond Art - A Third Culture : a Comparative Study in Cultures, Art, and Science in 20th Century Austria and Hungary. Springer. p. 350. ISBN 3-211-24562-6. 
  43. ^ Nicholas, Peter (September 21, 2009). "Chasing the king of chess". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 21, 2009. 
  44. ^ Doran, p. 1
  45. ^ Nathan Myhrvold, "John von Neumann". Time, March 21, 1999. Accessed September 5, 2010
  46. ^ Naomi Pfefferman (2002-04-12). "The Days of Summer". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  47. ^ András Csillag, "Joseph Pulitzer's Roots in Europe: A Genealogical History," American Jewish Archives, Jan 1987, Vol. 39 Issue 1, pp 49–68
  48. ^ a b Biography. GeneSimmons.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2011.
  49. ^ her father was a Hungarian immigrant
  50. ^ Blumesberger, Susanne; et al. (2002). Handbuch österreichischer Autorinnen und Autoren jüdischer Herkunft 1. K. G. Saur. ISBN 3-598-11545-8. 
  51. ^ Video in which Teller recalls his earliest memories.