Hunnewell Estates Historic District

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Hunnewell Estates Historic District
Pond Road and Washington Street Wellesley MA.jpg
View of fields and pastures at Hunnewell Farm, Pond Road and Washington Street.
Hunnewell Estates Historic District is located in Massachusetts
Hunnewell Estates Historic District
Location Wellesley, Massachusetts
Coordinates 42°16′48″N 71°18′30.5″W / 42.28000°N 71.308472°W / 42.28000; -71.308472Coordinates: 42°16′48″N 71°18′30.5″W / 42.28000°N 71.308472°W / 42.28000; -71.308472
Built 1770 to 1891
Architect Arthur Gilman, John Sturgis, Gridley J.F. Bryant, Ware & Van Brunt, and Shaw & Hunnewell.
Architectural style Italianate, Colonial Revival, Late Victorian, 19th & 20th Century Revivals.
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference #

88000438

[1]
Added to NRHP April 14, 1988

The Hunnewell Estates Historic District is a historic district between the Charles River and Lake Waban in Wellesley and Natick, Massachusetts, about 17 miles west of Boston. It consists of the large group of 18th to 21st century agricultural and estate properties with farmland, gardens, residences, and landscapes of the Hunnewell and Welles families. The properties in the Historic District are still largely owned and occupied by members of the Hunnewell family. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1988.[2]

History[edit]

Topiary 'Italian Garden' on the H.H. Hunnewell estate circa 1909.

The Hunnewell estates began with talented railroad financier and businessman, landscape designer, and horticulturalist H. Hollis Hunnewell in the late 1840s, and continued with his adult children, and the following generations.[2][3] Mr. Hunnewell and his family gave much to the town of Wellesley, which was renamed after his wife's family - the Welles, and to Boston, with civic philanthropy in numerous fields.

They also were generous to the New England horticulture community for over 75 years via importing, testing, and distributing many new plant introductions, estate site planning and garden design examples, and supportive leadership in the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.[3] Horatio Hollis Hunnewell was especially interested in coniferous and broad-leaved evergreens, and Asian rhododendrons.[3]

At their peak during the early 20th century 'American Country Place' era, there were twenty contiguous Hunnewell estates along Washington Street and Pond Road in southwest Wellesley.[2]

Conservation[edit]

The family has placed hundreds of acres in the district under perpetual conservation restrictions, primarily with The Trustees of Reservations, protecting Lake Waban and the Charles River, as well as the farmland, gardens, landscapes, vistas, and natural native landscapes from development.[2] These restrictions, starting in 1974, were among the first placed with the Trustees of Reservations.

Historic district[edit]

The district includes the original Welles homestead and the eight contiguous country residences H. H. Hunnewell built for himself and seven of his nine children:[2]

  • 'Welles House' (1770) - original country homestead of the Welles family of Boston and Paris.
  • 'Wellesley' (1851) - the H.H. Hunnewell estate, with renaissance revival style residence designed by Arthur Gilman, renowned lakeside topiary Italian Garden (1854), and Pinetum (1867). In 1865-1866, two gate lodges were built and a large conservatory was added to the residence, all designed by Gridley J.F. Bryant. Unlike his peers of the era, Mr. Hunnewell was his own landscape architect and did not employ a professional firm to lay out his grounds.
  • 'The Cottage' (1870) - Queen Anne style guest cottage, designed by John Sturgis, and including 1923 landscape design by the Olmsted Brothers.
  • 'The Oaks' (1871) - residence of Arthur Hunnewell, designed by John Sturgis, burned in 1891, and replaced with a new residence designed by Shaw & Hunnewell, with first private golf course in New England (1892), in use until World War II.
  • 'Walter Hunnewell house' (1875) - gothic revival residence of Walter Hunnewell, designed by Ware & Van Brunt, with 1881 alterations by McKim, Mead & White.
  • 'Hill Hurst' (1883) - brick victorian residence of Hollis Hunnewell, designed by Shaw & Hunnewell, and including 1892 squash courts, being the first of their kind in the United States.
  • 'The Cedars' (1891) - residence of Henry Sargent Hunnewell, designed by Shaw & Hunnewell, and including a large landscape designed by Charles Eliot and organized around long directed 'view avenues' to Morse's Pond and other features. The original house was pulled down in 1953 and replaced with a more modest brick dwelling in 1954.
  • 'The Morrill House' (1775) - residence of Dr. Isaac Morrill, purchased by John Welles in 1836, and passed from him to his daughter Isabella Pratt Welles, wife of H. H. Hunnewell. The house was greatly enlarged in 1891 along plans of Shaw & Hunnewell as a residence for Mr. & Mrs. Francis Williams Sargent. Mrs. Sargent was a daughter of H. H. Hunnewell, and a grandmother of Francis W. Sargent, Governor of Massachusetts from 1969-1975.
  • 'The Pines' (1891) - residence of Mr. & Mrs. Robert Gould Shaw, designed by Shaw & Hunnewell. Mrs. Shaw was a daughter of H. H. Hunnewell. Mr. Shaw is not to be confused with his cousin, Robert Gould Shaw, who commanded the African-American 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry during the US Civil War. This property is no longer in the family, having been sold to Wellesley College in the 1970s.
1875 Victorian residence of Walter Hunnewell in the historic district. Architect: Ware & Van Brunt.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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