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The gunfight took place in Hunnewell, Kansas, a town frequented by cowboys working on the local ranches and corrals. Hunnewell, which as of the 2000 US census sports a population of 83, at the time was a prosperous cattle town, serving as a shipping point for Texas cattle. The Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston Railroad provided quick access to the Kansas City, Kansas stockyards, and in the towns heyday it had one hotel, two general stores, one barber shop, two dance halls, and eight saloons. With little more than railroad workers and cowboys, violence was common. There were no lawmen to speak of during the 1880s in or around that area, and typically cattle rustling and other crimes were dealt with by the ranchers themselves.
On October 5th, 1884, cowboys Oscar Halsell and Clem Barfoot entered Hanley's Saloon, and quickly became drunk, causing problems. Two Texas lawmen entered also, and although only passing through, they attempted to quiet the disturbance. This developed into an argument, which quickly resulted in several people drawing pistols. Who shot first is not known, but is believed that Clem Barfoot actually fired the first round. Several shots followed, resulting in Barfoot and Deputy Sheriff Ed Scotten being killed. No one was ever prosecuted, and although publicised at the time, the gunfight was soon forgotten. Oscar Halsell would go on to be a prosperous rancher, later employing such notable outlaws as Bill Doolin and George "Bittercreek" Newcomb. Halsell was also close friends to later U.S. Marshal Evett D. Nix.