Huo Qubing

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Huo Qubing
Marquis of Champion 冠軍侯
In office
123 BC – 117 BC
Succeeded by Huo Shan
Personal details
Born 140 BC
Died 117 BC (aged 22-23)
Relations Huo Zhongyu (father)
Wei Shaoer (mother)
Wei Zifu (aunt)
Wei Qing (uncle)
Liu Ju (cousin)
Huo Guang (half-brother)
Huo Chengjun (niece)

Huo Qubing (Chinese: 霍去病; pinyin: Huò Qùbìng; Wade–Giles: Huo Ch'üping, 140 BC – 117 BC), born in Linfen, Shanxi, was a distinguished military tactician of the Western Han dynasty during the reign of Emperor Wu. He was the nephew of the famous general Wei Qing and Empress Wei Zifu (Emperor Wu's wife), and the half-brother of the later Han statesman Huo Guang.

Early life[edit]

Huo Qubing is born an illegitimate son from the premarital affair between Wei Shaoer (衛少兒), daughter of a lowly maid from the household of Princess Pingyang, and Huo Zhongru (霍仲孺), a low-class civil servant who were employed there also at the time.[1] However, Huo Zhongru did not want to marry a girl from serf background, so he dumped Wei Shaoer and went back to his hometown to marry a local woman instead. Wei Shaoer insisted keeping the child, raising him with help of her siblings.

When Huo Qubing was around two years old, his younger aunt Wei Zifu, who was serving as an in-house singer/dancer for Princess Pingyang, caught the eyes of a visiting young Emperor Wu, who took her and her half-brother Wei Qing back to his palace in the capital Chang'an. More than a year later, the newly favored concubine Wei Zifu became pregnant with Emperor Wu's first child, earning her the jealousy and hatred of Emperor Wu's then formal wife, Empress Chen. Empress Chen's mother, Eldest Princess Guantao (館陶長公主), then attempted to retaliate at Wei Zifu by kidnapping and attempting to murder Wei Qing, who was then serving as a horseman at the Jianzhang Camp (建章營, Emperor Wu's royal guards). After Wei Qing was rescued by his fellow palace guards led by his close friend Gongsun Ao (公孫敖), Emperor Wu took the opportunity to humiliate Empress Chen and Princess Guantao, by promoting Wei Zifu to a consort (夫人, a concubine position lower only to the Empress) and Wei Qing to the triple role of Chief of Jianzhang Camp (建章監), Chief of Staff (侍中) and Chief Councillor (太中大夫), effectively making him one of Emperor Wu's closest lieutenants. The rest of the Wei family were also heavily awarded, including the decreed marriage of Wei Shaoer's older sister Wei Junru (衛君孺) to Emperor Wu's personal assistant Gongsun He (公孫賀). At the time, Wei Shaoer was having a romantic relationship with Chen Zhang (陳掌), a great-grandson of Emperor Gaozu's adviser Chen Ping, and their relationship was also legitimized by Emperor Wu through the form of decreed marriage.[2] With the rocketing rise of the Wei family, the young Huo Qubing grew up in prosperity and prestige.

Military career[edit]

Although raised in reasonable wealth during the early glory days of the Wei family, Huo Qubing was nowhere like the good-for-nothing rich kids frequently seen out of noble families. He exhibited outstanding military talent even as a teenager. Emperor Wu saw highly of Huo's potential, and made Huo his personal assistant.

In 123 BC, Emperor Wu sent Wei Qing from Dingxiang (定襄) to engage the invading Xiongnu, and appointed the 18-year-old Huo Qubing to serve as the Captain of Piaoyao (票姚校尉) under his uncle,[3] seeing real combat for the first time. Although Wei Qing was able to kill or capture more than 10,000 Xiongnu soldiers, part of his vanguard forces, a 3,000-strong regiment commanded by generals Su Jian (蘇建, father of the great Han patriot Su Wu) and Zhao Xin (趙信, a surrendered Xiongnu prince) was outnumbered and annihilated after encountering the Xiongnu force led by Yizhixie Chanyu (伊稚斜單于). Zhao Xin defected on the field with his 800 ethnic Xiongnu subordinates, while Su Jian escaped after losing all his men in the desperate fighting. Due to the loss of this detachment, Wei Qing's troops did not earn any promotion, but Huo Qubing distinguished himself by leading a long-distance search-and-destroy mission with 800 light cavalrymen,[4] killing the Chanyu's grandfather and 2,028 enemies, as well as capturing numerous Xiongnu nobles. A very impressed Emperor Wu then made Huo Qubing the Marquess of Champion (冠軍侯) with march of 2,500 households.[5]

In 121 BC, Emperor Wu deployed Huo Qubing twice in that year against Xiongnu in the Hexi Corridor. During spring, Huo Qubing led 10,000 cavalry, fought through five Western Regions kingdoms within 6 days, advanced over 1,000 li over Mount Yanzhi (焉支山), killed two Xiongnu princes along with 8,960 enemies, and captured several Xiongnu nobles as well as the Golden Statue used by Xiongnu as an artifact for holy rituals.[6] For this achievement, his march was increased by 2,200 households.[7] During the summer of the same year, Xiongnu attacked Dai Commandery and Yanmen. Huo Qubing set off from Longxi (modern-day Gansu) with over 10,000 cavalry, supported by Gongsun Ao, who set off from Beidi Commandery (北地郡, modern-day Huan County, Gansu). Despite Gongsun Ao lost track and did not keep up later, Huo Qubing fought over 2,000 li without backup, all the way past Juyan Lake to Qilian Mountains, killing over 30,000 Xiongnu soldiers and capturing a dozen Xiongnu princes. His march was then increased further by 5,400 households for the victory.

The loss inflicted by Huo Qubing was felt hard by the Xiongnu, who sang:

Huo Qubing's victories dealt heavy blows to the tribes of the Xiongnu princes of Hunxie (渾邪王) and Xiutu (休屠王), who was occupying the Hexi Corridor. Out of frustration, Yizhixie Chanyu wanted to mercilessly execute those two princes as punishment. Feared for his own safety, the Prince of Hunxie contacted the Han Dynasty in autumn of 121 BC to negotiate surrender. After being unable to persuade the his fellow prince to do the same, he killed the Prince of Xiutu and ordered Xiutu's forces to also surrender. When the two tribes went to meet the Han forces, Xiutu's forces rioted. Seeing the situation changed, Huo Qubing headed to the Xiongnu camp by himself, ordered the Prince of Hunxie to calm his men and stand down, before forcefully putting down 8,000 Xiongnu men who refused to disarm, effectively quelling the riot. The Hunxie tribe was then resettled into the Central Plain. The surrender of the Xiutu and Hunxie tribes stripped Xiongnu of any control over the Western Regions, depriving them a large grazing area. As a result, Han Dynasty successfully opened up the Northern Silk Road, allowing direct trade access to Central Asia. This also provided new supply of high-quality horse breeds from Central Asia, including the famed Ferghana horse (ancestors of the modern Akhal-Teke), further strengthening the Han army. Emperor Wu then reinforced this strategic asset by establishing five commanderies and constructing a length of fortified wall along the border of the Hexi Corridor, colonized the area with 700,000 Chinese soldier-settlers.

After the series of defeats by Wei Qing and Huo Qubing, Yizhixie Chanyu took Zhao Xin's advice and retreated his tribes to the north of the Gobi Desert, hoping that the barren land would serve as a natural barrier against Han offensives. Emperor Wu however, was far from giving up, and planned a massive expeditionary campaign in 119 BC. Han forces were deployed in two separate columns, each consisting of 50,000 cavalry and over 100,000 infantry, with Wei Qing and Huo Qubing serving as the supreme commander for each.

Emperor Wu, who had been distancing Wei Qing and giving the younger Huo Qubing more attention and favor, hoped for Huo to engage the stronger Chanyu's tribe and preferentially assigned him the most elite troopers. The initial plan called for Huo Qubing to attack from Dingxiang (定襄, modern-day Qingshuihe County, Inner Mongolia) and engage the Chanyu, with Wei Qing supporting him in the east from Dai Commandery (代郡, modern-day, Yu County, Hebei) to engage the Left Worthy Prince (左賢王). However, a Xiongnu prisoner of war confessed that the Chanyu's main force was at the east side. Unaware that this was actually a false information by Xiongnu, Emperor Wu ordered the two columns to switch routes, with Wei Qing now setting off on the western side from Dingxiang, and Huo Qubing marching on the eastern side from Dai Commandery.

Battles at the eastern Dai Commandery theater were quite straightforward, as Huo Qubing's forces were far superior to their enemies. Huo Qubing advanced over 2,000 li and directly engaged the Left Worthy Prince in a swift and decisive battle, quickly encircled and overran the Xiongnu, killing 70,443 men, and capturing three lords and 83 nobles, while suffering a 20% casualty rate that was quickly resupplied from local captures. He then went on to conduct a series of rituals upon arrival at the Khentii Mountains (狼居胥山, and the more northern 姑衍山) to symbolize the historic Han victory, then continued his pursuit as far as Lake Baikal (瀚海), effectively annihilating the Xiongnu clan.[8] A separate division led by Lu Bode (路博德), set off on a strategically flanking route from Right Beiping (右北平, modern-day Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia), joined forces with Huo Qubing after arriving in time with 2,800 enemy kills, and the combined forces then returned in triumph. This victory earned Huo Qubing a further 5,800 households of fiefdom as reward,[9] making him more distinguished than his uncle Wei Qing.[10] At the height of his career, many low-ranking commanders previously served under Wei Qing voluntarily jumped ship to Huo Qubing's service in the hope of achieving military glory with him.[11]

Death and legacy[edit]

Being a brave and extremely talented general, Huo Qubing was highly regarded by Emperor Wu, who offered to help him build up an ousehold for marriage. Huo Qubing however turned down the offer, citing that "the Xiongnu are not yet eliminated, why should I start a family? (匈奴未滅,何以家為?)",[12] a statement that became one of the most inspirational Chinese patriotic motto ever since. Though Huo Qubing was recorded as a quiet man with few words, he was far from humble.[13] Sima Qian noted in Shiji that Huo Qubing paid little regard to his men,[14] refused to share his food with his soldiers,[15] and regularly ordered his troops to conduct cuju games despite them being short on rations.[16] When Emperor Wu suggested him to study The Art of War by Sun Tzu and Wuzi by Wu Qi, Huo Qubing claimed that he knew strategy naturally and had no need to study.[17] When his subordinate Li Gan (李敢, son of Li Guang) assaulted Wei Qing, who mercifully decided to settle the heat by letting the incident slide, Huo Qubing however refused to tolerate such disrespect towards his uncle and personally shot dead Li Gan during a hunting trip, resulting in Emperor Wu having to cover up for him by stating that Li Gan was "killed by a deer".[18]

However, when it came to martial glory, Huo Qubing never hesitated to share the honor with his men. One of the most famous tale is that when Emperor Wu awarded Huo a jar of precious wine for his achievement, he poured it into a creek so all his troopers drinking the water could share a taste of it, giving name to the city of Jiuquan (酒泉, literally "wine spring").

Huo Qubing died in 117 BC at the early age of 24 due to a plague, possibly the result of a primitive form of biological warfare. It is believed that Xiongnu soldiers put dead horses, cows and sheep in lakes during the Gobi Desert war to contaminate water supplies and spread infectious diseases among the Han soldiers, in a form of shamanistic witchcraft curse. After Huo Qubing's death, the sorrowed Emperor Wu ordered the elite troops from the five border commanderies to line up all the way from Chang'an to Maoling, where Huo Qubing's tomb was constructed in the shape of the Qilian Mountains to commemorate his military achievements.[19] Huo Qubing was then posthumously appointed the title Marquess of Jinghuan (景桓侯),[20] and a large "Horse Stomping Xiongnu" (馬踏匈奴) stone statue was built in front of his tomb.

Along with his uncle Wei Qing, Huo Qubing was among the most decorated military commanders in Chinese history. The Eastern Han Dynasty historian Ban Gu, summarized in his Book of Han Huo Qubing's achievements with a poem:

Huo Qubing's half-brother Huo Guang, whom he took custody away from his father, was later a great statesman who was the chief consul behind Emperor Zhao, and was instrumental in the succession of Emperor Xuan to the throne after Emperor Zhao's death.

Huo Qubing's son Huo Shàn (霍嬗), who succeeded him as the Marquess of Champion but died young in 110 BC, so his title became extinct. His grandson Huo Shān (霍山, later Marquess of Leping) and Huo Yun (霍云, later Marquess of Guanyang) was involved in a failed plot to overthrow Emperor Xuan of Han in 66 BC, resulting in both of them committing suicide and the Huo clan was executed. It was presumably that no male descendant of Huo Qubing nor Huo Guang survived, as during the reign of Emperor Ping of Han, it was Huo Yang, a great-grandson of Huo Qubing's paternal cousin, chosen to inherit Huo Guang as Marquess of Bolu.

Popular culture[edit]

Huo Qubing is one of the 32 historical figures who appear as special characters in the video game Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI by Koei.

Huo Qubing was played by Li Junfeng (李俊锋) in the popular 2005 historical epics TV series Han Wu Da Di (汉武大帝).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 霍去病,大將軍青姊少兒子也。其父霍仲孺先与少兒通,生去病
  2. ^ 及衛皇后尊,少兒更為詹事陳掌妻。
  3. ^ 大將軍姊子霍去病年十八,幸,為天子ヰ中。善騎射,再從大將軍,受詔與壯士,為剽姚校尉。
  4. ^ 與輕勇騎八百直棄大軍數百里赴利,斬捕首虜過當。
  5. ^ 剽姚校尉去病斬首虜二千二十八級,及相國、當戶,斬單于大父行籍若侯產,生捕季父羅姑比,再冠軍,以千六百戶封去病為冠軍侯。
  6. ^ 票騎將軍率戎士逾烏韡,討脩濮,涉狐奴,歷五王國,輜重人眾攝讋者弗取,几獲單于子。轉戰六日,過焉支山千有余里,合短兵,鏖皋蘭下,殺折蘭王,斬盧侯王,銳悍者誅,全甲獲丑,執渾邪王子及相國、都尉,捷首虜八千九百六十級,收休屠祭天金人,師率減什七
  7. ^ 益封去病二千二百戶
  8. ^ 票騎將軍去病率師躬將所獲葷允之士,約輕繼,絕大幕,涉獲單于章渠,以誅北車耆,轉擊左大將雙,獲旗鼓,歷度難侯,濟弓盧,獲屯頭王、韓王等三人,將軍、相國、當戶、都尉八十三人,封狼居胥山,禪于姑衍,登臨翰海,執訊獲丑七万有四百四十三級,師率減什二,取食于敵,卓行殊遠而糧不絕
  9. ^ 以五千八百戶益封票騎將軍
  10. ^ 自是后,青日衰而去病日益貴。
  11. ^ 青故人門下多去,事去病,輒得官爵
  12. ^ 天子為治第,令驃騎視之,對曰:「匈奴未滅,無以家為也。」
  13. ^ 驃騎將軍為人少言不泄,有氣敢任。
  14. ^ 然少而侍中,貴,不省士。
  15. ^ 其從軍,上為遣太官繼數十乘,既還,重車余棄粱肉,而士有饑者。
  16. ^ 其在塞外,卒乏糧,或不能自振,而去病尚穿域蹋鞠也。事多此類
  17. ^ 上嘗欲教之吳、孫兵法,對曰:「顧方略何如耳,不至學古兵法。」
  18. ^ 李敢以校尉從驃騎將軍擊胡左賢王,力戰,奪左賢王鼓旗,斬首多,賜爵關內侯,食邑二百戶,代廣為郎中令。頃之,怨大將軍青之恨其父,乃擊傷大將軍,大將軍匿諱之。居無何,敢從上雍,至甘泉宮獵。驃騎將軍去病與青有親,射殺敢。去病時方貴幸,上諱云鹿觸殺之。
  19. ^ 天子悼之,發屬國玄甲軍,陳自長安至茂陵,為冢象祁連山。
  20. ^ 謚之,并武與廣地曰景桓侯。

References[edit]

  • Joseph P Yap Wars with the Xiongnu - A translation From Zizhi tongjian AuthorHouse (2009) ISBN 978-1-4490-0604-4