|Category 2 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Hurricane Diana approaching landfall in Mexico.|
|Formed||August 4, 1990|
|Dissipated||August 9, 1990|
|Highest winds||1-minute sustained:
100 mph (155 km/h)
|Lowest pressure||980 mbar (hPa); 28.94 inHg|
|Damage||$90.7 million (1990 USD)|
|Areas affected||Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Belize, Yucatán Peninsula, Mainland Mexico|
|Part of the 1990 Atlantic hurricane season, 1990 Pacific hurricane season|
Hurricane Diana was the deadliest tropical cyclone during the 1990 Atlantic hurricane season, killing 139 people in Mexico. Forming out of a tropical wave on August 4, the system brushed Honduras before intensifying into a tropical storm the following day. Gradually gaining strength, Diana struck the Yucatán Peninsula with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). Due to the interaction with land, the cyclone weakened somewhat before moving over the warm waters of the Bay of Campeche on August 6. Once over water, the Diana quickly became a hurricane and later reached its peak intensity on August 7 as a Category 2 on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Shortly thereafter, the storm made landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas with winds of 100 mph (165 km/h). Rapid weakening ensued once the storm moved over the high terrain of Mexico and Diana diminished to a tropical depression roughly 24 hours after moving onshore. The cyclone later emerged into the Gulf of California on August 9 before losing all tropical characteristics, though its remnants were monitored until August 14 when the system lost its identity over Arizona.
Throughout Mexico, Hurricane Diana produced torrential rains that triggered deadly flooding and landslides. Roughly 155 mi² (400 km²) of farmland was destroyed and 30,000 people were left homeless by the storm. Numerous roads and railways were either washed out or blocked by debris, cutting communication with several communities. In all, 139 people were killed in the country and $90 million (1990 USD) was wrought in damage. Due to the extensive loss of life and damage caused by Hurricane Diana, its name was retired the following year and replaced with Dolly.
Meteorological history 
The origins of Hurricane Diana were from a tropical wave that emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa on July 27. Conditions were unfavorable for development of a tropical cyclone, and the tropical wave remained disorganized until reaching the eastern Caribbean Sea. The system entered the Caribbean Sea through the southern Windward Islands, where falling barometric pressures were observed, decreasing by 3.5 mbar (hPa; 0.1 inHg) in 24 hours. Upper-level air data from the Lesser Antilles indicated that the tropical wave was associated with an upper-level anticyclone. With increasing convection, the first Air Force reconnaissance plane flight indicated no low-level circulation, but a relatively large amount of thunderstorm activity. The system continued to have a large amount of associated convection while passing over the Netherlands Antilles, as indicated by satellite images and surface observations. Cyclonic rotation was observed in the low-level convection by satellite images, and the fifth tropical depression of the season had developed at 0000 UTC on August 4, situated in the southwestern Caribbean Sea. However, this was based on surface observations, and it was not confirmed that tropical cyclone formation occurred until later that day.
The new tropical depression moved to the northwest under the influence of a mid-level trough, and rapidly intensified to a tropical storm the following day offshore of eastern Honduras; the National Hurricane Center assigned the system to the name Diana. Becoming a tropical storm, Diana further intensified, and winds reached 65 mph (105 km/h) before landfall in Felipe Carrillo Puerto in Quintana Roo occurred. The storm initially rapidly weakened over land, although it retained winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) until moving over open waters. When Diana entered the southern Gulf of Mexico, the trough of low pressure in that vicinity weakened and steering currents caused the storm to head westward. Conditions became more favorable in the Gulf of Mexico, and Diana quickly intensified, becoming a hurricane late on August 7. Hurricane Diana rapidly intensified, and briefly reached category 2 hurricane status, attaining peak intensity with winds of 100 mph (165 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 980 mbar (hPa; 28.94 inHg). Only two hours after attaining peak intensity on August 7, Hurricane Diana made landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas at the same intensity.
Moving inland, Diana rapidly weakened over the high terrain of Mexico, quickly deteriorating from a low-end category 2 hurricane immediately to a strong tropical storm just four hours later. Diana continued westward over Mexico, and weakened to a tropical depression on August 8, while centered near Mexico City. The weakening tropical depression turned west-northwestward over central Mexico, and emerged into the Pacific Ocean on August 9, before dissipating in the Gulf of California. The remnants of Hurricane Diana curved northward and tracked trough the Gulf of California, and eventually came ashore in northwestern Sonora. Crossing northwestern Mexico, the remnants of Diana entered Arizona and quickly dissipated.
In anticipation of Diana's first landfall, a tropical storm warning was issued on August 5 for Cancún, Mexico southward to Belize City, Belize on August 5, including the offshore islands from both nations; a tropical storm warning indicates that tropical storm force winds, 39 to 73 mph (39 to 118 km/h), are expected within 24 hours. Eleven hours later, the tropical storm warning was extended as far as Carmen, but was discontinued for the entire east coast of Belize. Residents along coastal areas of Quintana Roo were advised to evacuate inland. Emergency officials set up shelters were set up in Xcalak, Punta Herrero and Punta Allen. The Mexican Coast Guard was placed on alert and shipping across Quantana Roo was suspended during the evening of August 5. After Diana made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula on August 6, all of the tropical storm warnings in place were discontinued.
Nine hours after all warnings were along the Yucatán Peninsula, Diana began to threaten the mainland east coast of Mexico, and a hurricane watch was issued for Tuxpan to Boca de Jesus Maria; a hurricane watch notes the possibility of hurricane conditions within 48 hours, such as winds of at least 74 mph (119 km/h). Early on August 7, the National Hurricane Center anticipated on hurricane conditions within 24 hours, and as a result, a hurricane warning was issued for Nautla to Le Pesca. Simultaneously, a tropical storm warning was issued for La Pesca to Boca de Jesus Maria. Later that day, a hurricane warning had been issued for a similar area, stretching from Nautla to Lerdo de Tejada. By 0000 UTC on August 8, all of the watches and warnings in place were officially discontinued. According to Miguelangel Rebolledo, the captain of the port of Tuxpan, about 300 people fled low-lying areas.
On the offshore island of Cozumel, sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) was reported. While crossing over the Yucatán Peninsula, Mérida reported winds of 34 mph (54 km/h) with gusts of 40 mph (65 km/h). In addition, wind gusts of 37 and 45 mph (59.5 and 72.4 km/h) were reported in the towns of Felipe Carrillo Puerto and José María Morelos, respectively. Diana also caused heavy rain across the area, though damage is unknown. Due to heavy rainfall, minor street flooding occurred in Chetumal, Quintana Roo.
Rough seas were reported mainly between Coatzacoalcos and Tampico; the ports of those two cities were closed during the passage of Diana, according to the National Weather Service. While passing through the Bay of Campeche and the southern Gulf of Mexico, Diana produced waves up to 12 ft (3.6 m) in height. On mainland Mexico, the states of Veracruz, Hidalgo, and Puebla were hardest hit, with over 75,000 people affected by the hurricane. In Poza Rica, high winds toppled trees and electricity poles, which cut off telephone services and electricity supply to the city. Fallen trees and telephone wires also blocked some streets in the area, but the major roads remained open. Diana caused torrential rainfall while crossing the country, which peaked at 21.92 in (557 mm) in Aquismón, San Luis Potosí. Heavy rainfall triggered mudslides and flooding, mostly in the east-central portion of Mexico. The rainfall caused extensive property damage, destroying numerous houses and leaving 3,500 homeless. The torrential rain blocked highways and railways across six states. Furthermore, the flooding also destroyed 155 mi² (400 km²) of farmland. In addition, it is estimated that Diana injured 25,000 people. Several miners were reported dead, after their truck plunged into a ravine. Excluding the 56 people that were missing by the end of 1990, Hurricane Diana caused 139 deaths, and $90.7 million in damage (1990 USD; $159 million 2013 USD). However, some sources claim that there were as much as 391 fatalities and losses incurred by the storm totaled to $94.5 million (1990 USD; $166 million 2013 USD).
While Diana was crossing the Yucatán Peninsula, it dropped light rainfall in Belize, peaking at 1 in (25 mm) in an unspecified location. The remnants of Hurricane Diana eventually moved into the Southwestern United States, bringing heavy rainfall to the region. In Imperial County, California, golf-ball sized hail was reported by the residents, along with rain and lightning, causing briefly power outages throughout the county. A police dispatch of Imperial County also noted local flooding, which resulted in traffic disruptions. The remnants of Diana also dropped light rainfall in San Diego County, California, with the city of San Diego receiving only a trace of rain, Vista reporting 0.09 in (2 mm), Del Mar had 0.08 in (2 mm), and Oceanside measuring 0.3 in (8 mm).
Due to its impact, the name Diana was retired by the World Meteorological Organization in the spring of 1991, and will never be used again for another Atlantic hurricane. It was replaced with Dolly for the 1996 season. This Hurricane Diana is not to be confused with the 1955 season's Hurricane Diane, which was also retired.
See also 
- Avila, Lixion (1990). "Hurricane Diana Preliminary Report, Page 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- Roth, David (January 27, 2007). "Hurricane Diana - August 4–14, 1990". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- Avila, Lixion (1990). "Hurricane Diana Preliminary Report, Page 5". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
- "Tropical Storm Whips Yucutan". Mexico City, Mexico: Associated Press. August 5, 1990. (Accessed through LexisNexis)
- "Diana threatens Yucatan with 45 mph winds". Chetumal, Mexico: United Press International. August 5, 1990. (Accessed through LexisNexis)
- Associated Press (August 7, 1990). "Hurricane Diana batters Mexico's Gulf Coast". Observer-Reporter. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- "History for Cancun, Mexico". Weather Underground. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Associated Press (August 7, 1990). "Diana headed back out into the Gulf". Williamson Daily News. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- Avila, Lixion (1990). "Hurricane Diana Preliminary Report, Page 2". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- "Tropical storm moves toward gulf". Reading Eagle. August 5, 1990. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- "Hurricane Hits Mexican Coast, Loses Strength". Los Angeles Times. August 8, 1990. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- "Efectos Económicos de los Principales Desastres según Tipo de Fenómen (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links]]". Pan American Health Organization. 1990. Archived from the original
|url=(help) on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2010. Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
- "1990 Global Register of Major Flood Events". Dartmouth College. May 2, 2006. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- "Hurricane kills at least 35, wreaks havoc in Mexico". Deseret News. August 10, 1990. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- CENAPRED (November 2001). "SISTEMAS DE ALERTAMIENTO TEMPRANO Y DIFUSION DE LA INFORMACION EXPERIENCIAS EN MEXICO". El Centro Nacional De Prevencion De Desastres. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- "Huracan Diana Causo 81 Muertos". Explored.com. August 14, 1990. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Frappier (2007). "Recent Tropical Cyclones Near Central Belize". Geological Society of America. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "Remnants of Hurricane Diana Blamed for Rain in Southland". Los Angeles Times. August 16, 1990. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- "San Diego Skies Get Ahead of Themselves". Los Angeles Times. August 16, 1990. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- National Hurricane Center (March 16, 2011). "Retired Hurricane Names Since 1954". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2010.