Hurricane Kate (1985)
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHS)|
Hurricane Kate near peak intensity on November 20
|Formed||November 15, 1985|
|Dissipated||November 23, 1985|
|Highest winds||1-minute sustained:
120 mph (195 km/h)
|Lowest pressure||954 mbar (hPa); 28.17 inHg|
|Damage||$700 million (1985 USD)|
|Areas affected||Cuba, Florida, Georgia|
|Part of the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season|
Hurricane Kate was the final in a series of tropical cyclones to impact the United States during 1985, and the latest hurricane to impact the country on record. The eleventh named storm, seventh hurricane, and third major hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Kate originated from the interaction of an upper-level trough and tropical wave northeast of Puerto Rico on November 15. Though the system tracked erratically during the first hours of its existence, the intensification of a region of high pressure to the cyclone's north caused Kate to turn westward. A favorable atmospheric pattern allowed the newly developed system to intensify to hurricane intensity on November 16, and further to Category 2 intensity three days later. Kate made its first landfall on the northern coast of Cuba at this intensity prior to emerging as a slightly weaker storm during the evening hours of November 19. Once clear of land, it began to strengthen quickly, becoming a Category 3–a major hurricane–and reaching its peak intensity of 120 mph (195 km/h) the following day. On November 21, a cold front moving across the Mississippi Valley resulted in a north and eventual northeast turn of the cyclone, and Kate came ashore near Mexico Beach, Florida as a minimal Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h). Gradual weakening ensued as the cyclone moved along the Southeast United States coastline, and Kate transitioned to an extratropical cyclone a day after exiting the coastline of North Carolina, on November 23.
In preparation of the system, many hurricane watches and warnings were put into effect. Hundreds of thousands of residents were evacuated, and the governor of Florida declared a state of emergency for six counties in Florida; this was later relinquished following the relatively minor impacts of Kate. In addition, many shelters were opened. Heavy rainfall in Cuba caused numerous mudslides and flooding, killing several and leading to severe agriculture damage. Wind gusts over hurricane intensity resulted in widespread power outages, significant building damage, and major crop damage. Damage totaled to roughly $400 million, making it the most damaging hurricane to strike the island in many decades. When Kate struck the Florida Panhandle, it became the first hurricane to make landfall in that location since Hurricane Eloise. Storm surge and flooding rains destroyed much of the oyster industry, causing many to lose their jobs in the weeks after the storm. Gusts over 100 mph (160 km/h) contributed to downed trees and building damage, while a combination of the wind and rain led to downed power poles. Across the remainder of the Southeast United States, several inches of rainfall led to flash flooding, damage to roadways, and major tree damage. Overall, Kate resulted in 15 fatalities and $700 million in damage.
Before the formation of Hurricane Kate, there was a ridge located across the southeastern United States for much of the autumn of 1985, and concurrently a major trough persisted across the western portion of the country. As a result, weather conditions across the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic Ocean in November were more typical of the pattern in late September, including sea surface temperatures of 81 °F (27 °C). On November 13, a weak tropical wave[nb 1] began interacting with a trough to the northeast of the Lesser Antilles. It gradually organized with the favorable conditions, and on November 15 a Hurricane Hunters flight into the area indicated the development of a tropical cyclone; as gale force winds were already present, the system was upgraded directly to Tropical Storm Kate, about 240 miles (385 km) northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico.
With a ridge to its north, Kate tracked westward after developing, and an upper-level low developed to the southwest of the storm. The combination of the two provided favorable outflow, allowing Kate to quickly intensify. On November 16, the storm attained hurricane status while moving through the southeastern Bahamas. After continued strengthening, Kate made landfall at 0600 UTC on November 19 over north-central Cuba with a well-defined eye. When it moved ashore, Kate had a pressure of 967 mbar (28.6 inHg) and winds of about 110 mph (180 km/h). The hurricane maintained its well-defined eye while moving across northern Cuba, and about 12 hours after making landfall, Kate emerged into the southeastern Gulf of Mexico just east of Havana. Over the next 24 hours, Kate re-intensified off the southwest coast of Florida, during which it passed about 85 mi (137 km) southwest of Key West. On November 20, the Hurricane Hunters observed winds as strong as 125 mph (201 km/h), and a buoy recorded a gust of 136 mph (219 km/h); this was the highest wind gust from a buoy in the Gulf of Mexico until Hurricane Lili in 2002. Based on the observations, it is estimated that Kate attained peak winds of about 120 mph (190 km/h) at around 1200 UTC on November 20.
Hurricane Kate maintained peak intensity for about 18 hours. On November 21, a cold front moving through the Mississippi Valley turned the hurricane to the north and northeast. The combination of cooler waters and wind shear from the front weakened Kate to an intensity of 100 mph (160 km/h) by the time the hurricane struck Crooked Island near Mexico Beach, Florida late on November 21. After landfall, Kate continued to the northeast, and it crossed into Georgia and weakened into a tropical storm. Kate emerged from North Carolina into the Atlantic Ocean late on November 22. Encountering even colder waters and continued shear, the storm weakened further while turning to the east-southeast. On November 23, Kate transitioned into an extratropical cyclone to the west of Bermuda, before dissipating shortly thereafter.
Until 2011, Kate was considered the second-latest hurricane landfall in the United States, only behind a storm in 1925 that struck on December 1; however, a reanalysis indicated the 1925 system was only a tropical storm, which made Kate the latest hurricane on record to hit the country. With Kate's landfall, the 1985 season had six hurricanes that struck the United States, only one behind the record of seven set in 1886.
By November 18, a hurricane warning was in effect for the southeast and central Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. Flood warnings were issued for northern Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. In preparation for the hurricane's arrival, officials forced 360,000 people to evacuate in north-central Cuba.
While Kate was moving through the Bahamas, the National Hurricane Center issued a hurricane warning from Jupiter to Fort Myers, Florida, including the Florida Keys. Then-Governor of Florida Bob Graham declared a state of emergency for six counties in South Florida. However, it was reversed following the relatively minor effects in South Florida. Three shelters were opened in Key West, though only 500 sought refugee during the storm, with most citizens on the island rode out the storm in their homes. Officials issued a voluntary evacuation for the Florida Keys, which caused heavy traffic on the Overseas Highway from evacuees and prompted the Red Cross to open 12 shelters. Three shelters were opened in Key West, though only 500 sought refugee during the storm, with most citizens on the island rode out the storm in their homes. In Fort Lauderdale, schools were closed, and residents in mobile homes were forced to leave.
After peaking in intensity in the Gulf of Mexico, the National Hurricane Center issued a hurricane watch from Grand Isle, Louisiana to Cedar Key, Florida on November 20. Later that day, a portion of the watch area was upgraded to a warning from Bay St. Louis, Mississippi to St. Marks, Florida. About 20,000 employees on oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico were evacuated, many by helicopter. The USS Lexington left port from Naval Air Station Pensacola to remain in the ocean during the storm, and aircraft in the region were flown inland. About 100,000 people along the Florida panhandle were told to leave their houses after Governor Bob Graham issued evacuation orders in 13 counties. About 2,000 people stayed in 34 shelters in Panama City. Roads in the region suffered traffic jams from evacuees. Portions of the Florida gulf coast were threatened by Hurricane Elena earlier in the season, and some evacuees for that storm intended not to leave during Kate due to poor shelter conditions. Governor Graham activated 300 members of the Florida National Guard to prevent looting and to assist in evacuations. One person died from a stress-induced heart attack in Chipley after evacuating. Outside of Florida, about 2,200 people evacuated from Grand Isle, Louisiana.
Caribbean and Turks and Caicos Islands
Early in its duration, Hurricane Kate sank one boat near Puerto Rico and disabled three others. The crew of five on the sunken boat were rescued after 17 hours. Several homes in northern Puerto Rico were damaged, forcing hundreds to evacuate. Flooding was also reported in Dominican Republic, including around the capital Santo Domingo.
Heavy rainfall and winds up to 60 mph (97 km/h) were reported in the Turks and Caicos Islands. In Jamaica, heavy precipitation caused mudslides, which in turn blocked 23 major and minor roads and destroyed many bridges, culverts, and drains. Flooding in general caused severe damage to agriculture, especially in Clarendon, Manchester, Saint Ann, Saint Elizabeth, and Trelawny Parishes. Seven fatalities were reported, while the cost to repair damage was approximately $3 million (1985 USD).
As Kate moved across northern Cuba, it produced strong winds that peaked at 75 mph (120 km/h) in Sagua La Grande. Wind gusts peaked at 104 mph (167 km/h) in Varadero, and winds in the capital of Havana reached 70 mph (110 km/h). In Havana, high winds caused power outages and destroyed buildings. Waves of 9 ft (2.7 m) waves affected the city's waterfront. Outside of Havana, the hurricane damaged sugar mills and much of the sugar cane crop; throughout the island, the winds destroyed 3,653 mi2 (9461 km2) of sugar cane and 34,000 tonnes of sugar. The storm also destroyed 141,000 tonnes of bananas and 87,078 tonnes of other fruits and vegetables. Across the island, Kate damaged 88,207 houses and destroyed 4,382 others, affecting 476,891 people. Many public buildings, including schools, were damaged. Throughout the country, Kate killed 10 people and injured about 50 people. Damage was estimated at $400 million, which was the highest total from all landfalling hurricanes from 1903 to 1998, unadjusted for inflation.
As Kate passed to the southwest of Key West, the storm produced winds of 47 mph (76 km/h), and there were unofficial wind gusts of 104 mph (167 km/h). Rainfall totals in southwest Florida were around 1 in (25 mm), although Key West reported about 2.08 in (53 mm) of precipitation. High winds downed trees and power lines, leaving areas between Key West and Big Pine Key without power. Electrical outages contributed to a mobile home being destroyed by fire, and there was one electrocution death. Higher than normal tides caused minor flooding and erosion along the Florida Keys. Two people died after their boat capsized in the lower Florida Keys. As Kate passed to the southwest of Key West, the storm produced winds of 47 mph (76 km/h), and there were unofficial wind gusts of 104 mph (167 km/h). Rainfall totals in southwest Florida were around 1 in (25 mm), although Key West reported about 2.08 in (53 mm) of precipitation. High winds downed trees and power lines, leaving about 30,000 people between Key West and Big Pine Key without power. Electrical outages contributed to a mobile home being destroyed by fire, and there was one electrocution death. Higher than normal tides caused minor flooding and erosion along the Florida Keys. Two people died after their boat capsized in the lower Florida Keys.
Kate was the first hurricane along the Florida Panhandle since Hurricane Eloise in 1975. In the region, the hurricane dropped heavy rainfall along its path, peaking at 8.32 in (211 mm) in Panama City. While Kate moved ashore, it produced an 11 m (36 ft) storm surge at Cape San Blas, causing beach and dune erosion in Gulf County. Storm surge flooding left 150 houses uninhabitable in Wakulla County. Just two months after Hurricane Elena caused significant damage to the oyster industry, Hurricane Kate destroyed much of what little was left in Apalachicola Bay. Lack of production caused many oystermen to lose their jobs in the area.
Strong winds were reported across the Florida Panhandle and there was one reported tornado, along with several funnel clouds. In Panama City, wind gusts reached 78 mph (126 km/h), which damaged two houses, a motel, and a fishing pier. Sustained winds reached 74 mph (119 km/h) at Cape San Blas, with gusts to 108 mph (174 km/h). Across the area, Kate severely damaged 242 buildings, mostly in Franklin County; in the county, the damage was the heaviest of any other storm in the late 1900s. The storm damaged about 5.4 mi (8.7 km) of roads in the county, and throughout the region many roads were washed out. High winds downed trees across the Florida Panhandle, which damaged several houses. One downed tree struck a car, killing one person and injuring another. The winds also downed power poles and lines.
Many fishermen before and after the storm were suffering due to lack of fish. In addition, severely eroded coastlines lost even more beach from a 10 foot (3 m) storm surge and strong waves.
Along the coastline, there was extensive road damage, with potholes up to 4 feet (1.2 m) in length along U.S. Route 98.  Kate's strong winds and rain damaged at least 600 houses and water craft, amounting to $300 million (1985 USD) in damage.
Flooding and power outages across 90% of the city forced a curfew, taking up to two weeks to clean up. A positive aspect of the storm was the economic boost from coastal evacuees. Restaurants, hotels, and stores were full from those taking refuge from the storm.
Light rainfall of around 1 in (25 mm) from the hurricane extended into southeastern Alabama. Rainfall was much heavier in Georgia, peaking at 7.73 in (196 mm) in Bainbridge. Portions of southwestern Georgia experienced heavy damage from flash flooding and winds, and several secondary roads were washed out. Gusts of 80 mph (130 km/h) downed thousands of trees, and one fallen tree killed a man west of Thomasville. The cotton, soybean, and pecan crops suffered heavy losses, estimated at around $50 million. Property and utility damage was also estimated at $50 million, and damage from flash flooding was estimated at $1 million. While Kate was moving across southeastern Georgia, it produced a 62 mph (100 km/h) wind gust in Savannah. The city also reported 1.73 in (44 mm) of rainfall.
Further northeast, Charleston, South Carolina reported a wind gust of 50 mph (80 km/h). The highest rainfall total in the state was 6.56 in (167 mm) in Hampton. The rains caused flash flooding that washed out secondary roads and a bridge. The storm knocked tree limbs onto power lines, which left about 48,000 people without power. In Beaufort, trees fell onto four cars and a mobile home, and high waves sunk a boat. In Wilmington, North Carolina, the storm dropped 1.99 in (51 mm) of precipitation. Rains across the state caused generally minor flooding, although several cars were washed off roads. Floods forced a nursing home in Kannapolis to evacuate. Rainfall extended northward into Virginia.
As an extratropical cyclone, Kate moved north of Bermuda and brought wind gusts of 26 mph (42 km/h).
In the month after Hurricane Kate struck the island, the government of Cuba issued a request to the United Nations (UN) World Food Council for international assistance. In response, various UN nations provided $60,000 (1985 USD) for pesticides; $250,000 (1985 USD) for herbicides, fungicides, and potato seeds; and $1.381 million (1985 USD) in cooking oils and beans to provide the dietary needs of 476,891 people for 60 days. The Soviet Union also provided about $15 million (1985 USD) worth of rice and wheat flour.
Hurricane Kate caused a runoff mayor election in Key West to be delayed by two weeks. Shortly after the storm, the police departments of both Leon and Jackson Counties ordered a nightly curfew. Two disaster assistance centers were opened in Franklin County, one in Apalachicola and the other in Eastpoint. On December 3, 1985, then-President of the United States Ronald Reagan declared seven Florida counties as disaster areas, which allocated them for federal funding.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hurricane Kate (1985).|
- Hurricane Kate Damage
- David Longshore. "Hurricane Kate." Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons and Cyclones. David Longshore. New York: Facts on File, 1998, Pg; 208-209.
- List of North Carolina hurricanes (1980–1999)
- List of Florida hurricanes (1975-1999)
- Other storms of the same name