Hurricane Rina

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Hurricane Rina
Category 3 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Hurricane Rina Oct 25 2011 1745Z.jpg
Hurricane Rina on October 25, 2011, at peak intensity as a category 3 hurricane.
Formed October 23, 2011
Dissipated October 29, 2011
(extratropical after October 28)[1]
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 115 mph (185 km/h)
Lowest pressure 966 mbar (hPa); 28.53 inHg
Fatalities None
Damage Minimal
Areas affected Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Belize, Yucatán Peninsula, Cuba, Isle of Youth
Part of the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Rina was the eighteenth tropical cyclone, seventeenth named storm, seventh hurricane and fourth major hurricane of the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season. Rina developed from a low-pressure area in the western Caribbean Sea on October 23. The depression quickly intensified, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Rina early on the following day. Rina continued to rapidly strengthen as it tracked west-northwestward, and became a hurricane on October 24. Rina eventually peaked as a Category 3 hurricane while it moved generally westward on October 25. However, on October 26, Rina weakened substantially and was downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane. Further weakening occurred, and Rina was downgraded to a tropical storm on October 27. After being downgraded to a tropical storm, Rina continued to weaken slowly and dissipated on October 28.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

On October 19, an area of low pressure formed in the tail end of a cold front, over the extreme southeastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. Soon afterwards, the area of low pressure split from the cold front, and slowly moved west-southwestwards, into the Western Caribbean Sea. During the late afternoon of October 19, the low pressure area began to strengthen, while moving southwestward, now centered just off the coast of Central America. [2] On the morning of October 20, cloudiness and showers associated with that same low pressure area, began increasing in the western Caribbean Sea, although the system did not have falling pressure at the time.[3] By that evening the storm had begun to show more organization;[4] however, the upper-level winds were only described as "marginally favorable" for development, and relatively dry air in the region was acting as a hindrance to development.[5] Throughout the day on October 21, pressures began falling more and the system became more organized, while the center of the system shifted to the southwestern Caribbean Sea near the San Andrés Island.[6] On October 22 the pressure in the system continued to fall, while the system remained nearly stationary. Since the upper-level wind had not yet become conducive for tropical cyclone development, the system remained disorganized throughout the day.[7]

In the early morning hours of October 23 the system saw increased thunderstorm activity,[8] and by early that evening, the system strengthened into Tropical Depression Eighteen, with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h).[9] By late that evening the depression had already strengthened to a tropical storm and was given the name Rina.[10] Rina slowly strengthened over warmer waters through the morning of October 24,[11] and a few hours later reports from a Hurricane Hunter reconnaissance flight showed that Rina had rapidly intensified to a hurricane, with sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h).[12] Satellite imagery began to show the presence of convective bands and reconnaissance flights showed that the hurricane had slowed down in its movement to the west-northwest.[13] The hurricane continued to strengthen over warm waters with low wind shear, and by the early morning of October 25, the hurricane had become a Category 2 storm.[14] Rina continued to intensify as the day progressed, as winds increased and a small eye began to develop, due to the hurricane's location over very warm ocean waters and well established upper-level outflow. The hurricane continued its west-northwestern track around a mid-level ridge to its north.[15] Due to the favorable environment, Rina continued to strengthen through the early evening, becoming a Category 3 major hurricane with sustained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h).[16]

However, by October 26, Rina significantly weakened, and was downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane at 1645 UTC. The system was soon downgraded to a tropical storm with sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) as it began to batter the Yucatan Peninsula. Rina was later downgraded to a tropical depression just northeast of Cancun on October 28, 2011, and later that day was downgraded to a post-tropical remnant low over the Yucatan Channel, as of the final advisory at 2100 UTC.[17][18] But early on October 29, the remnants of Hurricane Rina were completely absorbed, while located to the northwest of the Yucatán Peninsula, into the southerly flow of a rare October Nor'easter.[19]

Preparations and impact[edit]

Latin America[edit]

Upon designation, Rina prompted the issuance of a tropical storm watch stretching from Punta Castilla, Nicaragua to the Honduras–Nicaragua border; after the system passed to the north, the watch was discontinued. At 0900 UTC on October 25, a tropical storm watch was issued from Chetumal, Mexico to Punta Gruesa, Mexico, while a hurricane watch was issued from Punta Gruesa to Cancún, Mexico. At 1500 UTC that same day, both watches were revised to warnings. After several provisions and modifications, all tropical cyclone watches and warnings were discontinued at 1500 UTC on October 28.[20]

In preparation for the storm, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega ordered a navy vessel to evacuate residents from low-lying portions of the country; however, contact was lost with the ship for two days. All 29 passengers were later found unharmed.[21] Meanwhile, Carnival Cruise Lines changed eight of their ships' itineraries to avoid the developing cyclone. The governor of Quintana Roo ordered hundreds of people to evacuate from the village of Punta Allen to storm shelters. In Cancún, authorities set up 50 emergency shelters while city residents purchased supplies and filled up on gas. Marine parks in and around the city were forced to move over two dozen dolphins to safer locations further inland.[22] Small boats and jet skis were hauled away from local marinas, while workers at nearby shopping centers began boarding up their windows.[23] The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was forced to cut an environmental mission short in order to avoid the projected path of the hurricane.[24]

At its closest approach to the Yucatán, Rina produced a maximum wind gust near 44 mph (71 km/h) in Puerto Aventuras.[25] Otherwise, as a result of the system's abrupt weakening, impact remained negligible.

United States[edit]

While weakening inland over the Yucatan Peninsula, a cold front drew moisture from Rina, which resulted rainfall over central and south Florida.[26][27] Early on October 29, a flash flood warning was issued for southern Palm Beach and northern Broward County.[28] Shortly thereafter, a flood watch was issued for the remainder of Palm Beach and Broward County, and also included Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Miami-Dade Counties.[29] Significant amounts rainfall were reported on the west coast of Florida, with 3.92 inches (100 mm) of precipitation recorded in Naples.[30] Further north in the Fort Myers area, approximately 2.49 inches (63 mm) of rain fell at the Southwest Florida International Airport.[31] Widespread street flooding was reported from Delray Beach southward to Parkland and Coral Springs. Police reported overflowing canals in Coral Springs.[32] In West Palm Beach, rainfall totaled to 2.93 inches (74 mm) at the Palm Beach International Airport.[33] A tornado reportedly touched down in Hobe Sound, which damaged several houses. In addition, downed power poles and trees were reported in that area.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/gtwo/atl/201110290600/index.php?basin=atl&current_issuance=201110290600
  2. ^ http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/gtwo/atl/201110191132/index.php?basin=atl&current_issuance=201110191132
  3. ^ Avila, Lixion (20 October 2011). "Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  4. ^ Stewart, Stacy (20 October 2011). "Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  5. ^ Stewart, Stacy (21 October 2011). "Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  6. ^ Kimberlain, Todd (21 October 2011). "Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  7. ^ Avila, Lixion (22 October 2011). "Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  8. ^ Kimberlain, Todd (23 October 2011). "Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  9. ^ Brown, Daniel (23 October 2011). "Tropical Depression Eighteen Discussion One". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  10. ^ Stewart, Stacy (23 October 2011). "Tropical Storm Rina Discussion Two". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  11. ^ Brown, Daniel; Roberts, Dave (24 October 2011). "Tropical Storm Rina Discussion Four". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  12. ^ Brown, Daniel; Roberts, Dave (24 October 2011). "Hurricane Rina Discussion Five". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  13. ^ Brown, Daniel (24 October 2011). "Hurricane Rina Discussion Six". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  14. ^ Pasch, Richard; Landsea, Christopher (25 October 2011). "Hurricane Rina Discussion Eight". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  15. ^ Brennan, Michael (25 October 2011). "Hurricane Rina Discussion Nine". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  16. ^ Brennan, Michael (25 October 2011). "Hurricane Rina Discussion Ten". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  17. ^ Beven, Jack (26 October 2011). "Hurricane Rina Tropical Cyclone Update". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  18. ^ Beven, Jack (26 October 2011). "Hurricane Rina Tropical Cyclone Update". National Hurricane Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  19. ^ http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/gtwo/atl/201110290600/index.php?basin=atl&current_issuance=201110290600
  20. ^ Eric S. Blake (January 26, 2012) (PDF). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Rina (Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL182011_Rina.pdf. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  21. ^ "Missing Nicaraguan naval vessel rescued". Agence France-Presse. October 25, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  22. ^ Isela Serrano (October 26, 2011). "Hurricane Rina nears Mexico's beach resorts". Reuters. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Hurricane 'to hit tourist resorts in Mexico'". The Irish Eagle. October 26, 2011.   – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  24. ^ J.D. Harrington; Michael Braukus; Brandi Dean (October 26, 2011). "NASA'S NEMMO Mission Ending Early Due to Hurricane Rina". National Aeronautics and Space Administration (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2011/oct/HQ_11-363_NEEMO.html#.UxU9lvldVAp. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  25. ^ Lixion A. Avila (October 27, 2011). "Tropical Storm Rina Advisory Number 20". National Hurricane Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2011/al18/al182011.public.020.shtml. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  26. ^ Weagle, Steve (29 October 2011). "Latest forecast from Storm Team 5". WPTV-TV. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  27. ^ Morris, Casey; Kellogg, Becky (29 October 2011). "More Liquid Sunshine for Florida". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  28. ^ Gregoria (28 October 2011). "Flash Flood Warning". National Weather Service. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  29. ^ "Flood Watch". National Weather Service. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  30. ^ "Weather observations for the past three days - Naples, Florida". National Weather Service. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  31. ^ "Weather observations for the past three days - Fort Myers, SW Florida Intl Airport". National Weather Service. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  32. ^ Gregoria (28 October 2011). "Flash Flood Statement". National Weather Service. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  33. ^ "Weather observations for the past three days - West Palm Beach, Palm Beach International Airport". National Weather Service. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  34. ^ "Reports of tornadoes touching down Saturday morning in Hobe Sound". WPTV. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.