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Husky // is a general name for a type of dog used to pull sleds in northern regions, differentiated from other sled-dog types by their fast pulling style. They are "an ever-changing cross-breed of the...fastest dogs". The Alaskan Malamute, by contrast, is "the largest and most powerful" sled dog, and was used for heavier loads. Huskies are used in sled dog racing. In recent years companies have been marketing tourist treks with dog sledges for adventure travelers in snow regions as well. Huskies are also today kept as pets, and groups work to find new pet homes for retired racing and adventure trekking dogs.
The word Husky originated brot from the word referring to Arctic people in general, Eskimos, "...known as Huskies, a contraction of Huskimos, the pronunciation given to the word Eskimos by the English sailors of trading vessels." Use of Husky is recorded from 1852 for dogs kept by Eskimo people.
Husky type dogs are energetic and athletic. They usually have a thick double coat that can be grey, black, copper red, or white. Huskies are known for pale blue eyes, although they may also have brown eyes, green eyes, or may even have yellow eyes. Huskies commonly have different colored eyes, a trait called heterochromia of the eye. Huskies are more commonly affected with some degree of uveitis than other types of dogs.
Husky-type dogs were originally used to pull sleds, hunt large game.
Husky type dogs originally were landrace breeds kept by Arctic indigenous peoples. DNA analysis has found that Huskies are one of the oldest types of dog, although one researcher "questioned the assignment of dogs to the ancient breed group, saying that any recent crossbreeding with wolves, as has happened with malamutes and Siberian huskies, could make a breed look primitive." 
Examples of these landraces in modern times have been selectively bred and registered with various kennel clubs as modern purebred breeds, including the Siberian Husky and Greenland Dog. The Sakhalin Husky is a Japanese sled dog related to the Japanese Spitz and Akita Inu. The Alaskan Husky is a type of sled dog found in Alaska (rather than Siberia or other Arctic areas) and the Mackenzie River Husky is a subtype referring to different dog populations in the Arctic and subarctic regions of Alaska and Canada. They are from Alaska.
Purebred working dogs are often deliberately crossbred with other breeds to enhance working abilities such as speed in a sled-racing dog. Joe Runyan (former Iditarod winner) describes Husky sled dogs as "an ever changing concept". Working ability is more important than keeping a breed "pure" so that it can be registered with a kennel club.
In addition crossbreeding is popular for pets, combining characteristics of the parents in unique ways. Crossbred pets are often given whimsical "breed" names made up of syllables of the breed names of both parent dogs such as Huskimo, a Siberian Husky and American Eskimo cross. Cross-bred working dogs are not given such whimsical identifiers and are just called "Huskies". Huskies are sometimes the color gray or black and white.
Since many owners now have Husky dogs as pets in settings that are not ideal for sledding, other activities have been found which are good for the dog and fun for the owner.
- Skijoring is an alternative to sled pulling, but mainly used in somewhat the same environment as sledding with the exception that the owner (cross-country skier) does not need a full pack in order to participate.
- Dog hiking is an alternative for owners who live closer to woodland trails. The owner travels with their dogs along trails in the wilderness. This activity allows the owner and dog to gain exercise without using the huskies' strong sense of pulling. Some companies make hiking equipment especially for dogs in which they may carry their own gear including water, food, and bowls for each.
- Carting, also known as dryland mushing or sulky driving, is an urban alternative to dog sledding. Here, the dog can pull a cart which contains either supplies or an individual. These carts can be bought or hand-made by the individual.
- Bikejoring is an activity where the owner bikes along with their dog while they are attached to their bike through a harness which keeps both the dog and owner safe. The dog or team of dogs can be attached to a towline to also pull the biker.
- Dog scootering is a mushing activity which relates to bikejoring and carting, where the owner rides a scooter that is pulled by the dog.
Huskies in popular culture
The phrase "Three dog night", meaning it is so cold you would need three dogs in bed with you to keep warm, originated with the Chukchi people of Siberia who kept the Siberian Husky landrace dog that became the modern purebred breed of Siberian Husky.
Huskies are the mascots of several post-secondary institutions in the United States, including the University of Washington, the University of Connecticut, Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, Northeastern University, Michigan Technological University, St. Cloud State University, Northern Illinois University, and the University of Wisconsin-Marathon County. They are also the mascot for Saint Mary's University (Halifax), George Brown College (Toronto) and the University of Saskatchewan in Canada.
The Allied invasion of Sicily was called "Operation Husky".
In the series "Charmed", Prue (Shannen Doherty) was turned into a siberian husky.
- Dogs of the Iditarod, by Jeff Schultz, pg 41, Sasquatch Books, January 28, 2003, ISBN 1-57061-292-7
- Dogs of the Iditarod, by Jeff Schultz, Sasquatch Books, January 28, 2003, ISBN 1-57061-292-7
- Dictionary of Newfoundland English, by George Morley Story, W. J. Kirwin, John David Allison Widdowson, pg 263, University of Toronto Press 2004, ISBN 0-8020-6819-7
- The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English 2009 online http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/husky.aspx
- Uveodermatologic syndrome, http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/courses/vet_eyes/conotes/con_chapter_11.html
- New York Times, Collie or Pug? Study Finds the Genetic Code by Mark Derr, May 21, 2004 http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/21/us/collie-or-pug-study-finds-the-genetic-code.html
- Climate Change in Prehistory: The End of the Reign of Chaos, by William James Burroughs, pg 129, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press 2005, ISBN 0-521-82409-5