Hutt Lagoon

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Hutt Lagoon
Hutt Lagoon, Western Australia.jpg
View of Hutt Lagoon from south east shore
Location Western Australia
Coordinates 28°08′S 114°13′E / 28.133°S 114.217°E / -28.133; 114.217Coordinates: 28°08′S 114°13′E / 28.133°S 114.217°E / -28.133; 114.217[1]
Type salt lake
Basin countries Australia
Max. length 14 kilometres
Max. width 2.3 kilometres
Max. depth 0.65 metre[2]
Surface elevation below sea-level

Hutt Lagoon is a salt lake located near the coast just north of the mouth of the Hutt River, in midwest Western Australia.

Geography[edit]

Nominally located at 28°10′S 114°15′E / 28.167°S 114.250°E / -28.167; 114.250,[1] Hutt Lagoon is an elongate lake that sits in a dune swale adjacent to the coast. The town of Gregory is located between the ocean and the lake's southern shores. The road between Northampton and Kalbarri, George Grey Drive, runs along its western edge.[3]

The lake is about 14 kilometres in length along its long axis which is oriented in a northwest-southest direction, parallel with the coast. It is around 2 kilometres wide.

The Hutt Lagoon comprises most of the Hutt Lagoon System, a DIWA-listed wetland system that also takes in a number of adjacent small lakes, such as Utcha Swamp.[4]

Hydrology[edit]

The lagoon, or marginal-marine salina (salt lake), is an elongate depression about 70 square kilometres in area, with most of it lying a few meters below sealevel. It is separated from the Indian Ocean by a beach barrier ridge and barrier dune system. Similar to Lake MacLeod, 40 km to the north of Carnarvon, Hutt Lagoon is fed by marine waters through the barrier ridge and by meteoric waters through springs.[2]

Due to the salina’s sub-sealevel position, seepage of seawater into the salina is continuous year round. During the winter wet season, the amount of water coming into the salina is substantially increased by the influx of meteoric groundwater. Hutt Lagoon has a Mediterranean climate; high evaporation rates (2150–2400 mm) are characteristic of the summer. There is moderate rainfall in the winter. These factors combine to form a setting within which salt is deposited seasonally and the rates and style of precipitation follow a balance between influx of water and removal by evaporation. During the summer about 95% of the salina surface is a dry salt flat.[2]

History[edit]

Hutt Lagoon was named by the explorer George Grey who camped on its eastern edge on 4 April 1839, while on his second disastrous expedition along the Western Australian coast. He mistook the wet season lagoon for a large estuary and named "the river and estuary now discovered" after William Hutt, M.P., brother of John Hutt, the second Governor of Western Australia. Hutt was a British Liberal politician who was heavily involved in the colonization of Western Australia, New Zealand and South Australia.[5]

After Grey's arrival back in Perth, Governor Hutt dispatched the schooner Champion to investigate the large estuary and river discovered. In summer, January 1840, the crew of the Champion found the Hutt River at its mouth to be dry, and could not locate the large estuary described by Grey.[5]

Resources[edit]

ß-carotene[edit]

Hutt Lagoon is a pink lake, a salt lake with a red or pink hue due to the presence of the carotenoid-producing algae Dunaliella salina, a source of ß-carotene, a food-colouring agent and source of vitamin A. The lagoon contains the world's largest microalgae production plant, a 250 ha series of artificial ponds used to farm Dunaliella salina.[2]

Brine shrimp[edit]

Hutt Lagoon provides a commercial supply of Artemia parthenogenetica brine shrimp. Artemia is a specialty feed used by prawn and fish farmers and the aquarium fish trade.[2]

Salt & gypsum[edit]

In 1854 the explorer Augustus Charles Gregory promoted the quantity and quality of the salt deposits at Hutt Lagoon and their proximity to Port Gregory. He also commended the gypsum deposits on the western shore of the lagoon.[6]

At the 1873 Sydney Intercolonial Exhibition salt from the Hutt Lagoon deposit was Highly Commended. Hutt Lagoon gypsum received a Bronze Medal.[7] Hutt Lagoon salt was also exhibited at the 1880 Melbourne Exhibition.[8]

In August 1908 Port Gregory Saltworks consigned its first shipment of salt on the SS Venus.[9] Production was seasonal, of the order of 4,000 tons per year and employing up to 50, until the salt operation went into liquidation in 1924.[10]

Hutt Lagoon, 2014

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Hutt Lagoon". Gazetteer of Australia online. Geoscience Australia, Australian Government. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Handford, C . Robertson (1991). Marginal Marine Halite: Sabkas and Salinas. In Judith L. Melvin. "Evaporites, Petroleum and Mineral Resources". Developments in Sedimentology 50 (Amsterdam: Elsevier). pp. 47–49. ISBN 0-444-88680-X. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  3. ^ StreetSmart Travellers Atlas of Western Australia (2002)
  4. ^ "Hutt Lagoon System". Australian Wetlands Database. Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Australian Government. 
  5. ^ a b Grey, George (1841). Journals of two expeditions of discovery in North-West and Western Australia, during the years 1837, 38, and 39, describing many newly discovered, important, and fertile districts, with observations on the moral and physical condition of the aboriginal inhabitants, etc. etc. 2. London: T. and W. Boone. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  6. ^ Gregory, A.C. (17 Mar 1854). "Report of Mineral Specimens found in the Murchison District". The Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  7. ^ "Sydney Intercolonial Exhibition". The Inquirer and Commercial News. 4 Jun 1873. p. 3. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  8. ^ "The Melbourne Exhibition". The West Australian. 15 Oct 1880. p. 3. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  9. ^ "Local News". Geraldton Guardian. 11 Aug 1908. p. 2. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  10. ^ "Northampton Notes". Geraldton Guardian. 8 Apr 1924. p. 2. Retrieved 2012-07-23.