Hola (ethnic group)

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Hola
هوله
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Lari language, Gulf Arabic
Religion
Sunni Islam, with a small Shia minority[1]
Related ethnic groups
Persians, Afro-Persians
For the original group, see Persian people and Iranian peoples.

Hola (Persian: هوله‎) are the descendants of Persians and Afro-Persians[2] who migrated to the Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the 19th century.

Terminology[edit]

Hola, or Huwala (in Arabic: هوله), is a plural Arabic term for Holi (in Arabic: هولي), which itself is a corruption of the singular Persian term Koli (in Persian: کولی), meaning Gypsy, and refers to a group of wandering Sunni non-Arabs who migrated to the Arabian peninsula, from the Iranian plateau and Indian subcontinent, during the 19th and 20th centuries. It can refer to people of multiple origins, including Iranian, Pakistani and Indian. The term should not be confused with non-Gypsy immigrants of non-Arab origins, who are usually referred to as Ajams.

Non-Arab descent[edit]

Ali Hussain Al-Awadhi, a Kuwaiti politician of Sunni Persian origin.

DNA tests have confirmed that the Janahi and other Hola families belong to the R1a1a haplogroup,[3] which is found within Iranian Kurds, Persians, Baloch, Africans and Bandaris.[4] This means that the family does not belong to the Arab Bani Khalid tribe, as previously claimed.

Migration to the Arab Peninsula[edit]

The most recent influx of the Hola to the now known as GCC countries is during the 1960s. Iran under the Shah was strict regarding different ethnic groups and maintained censuses on them. Most of the Hola families were exiled from various ports and villages of Iran. One inviting country was Bahrain, which had a need for more Sunni Muslims as the country was mainly Shia and was ruled by a Sunni family that came from Saudi Arabia. It was also a country that had a fairly large Hola community that existed on the island beforehand. Though there was a difference between the variety of people that had come during different times, the term “Hola” began to be used generally for all Sunni Muslims that had connections with Iran, especially after the Iranian Revolution, which brought about anti-Shia tensions to the GCC nation states, uniting those that were Sunni. You will mainly hear this term used in Bahrain, though Oman and the UAE has a large number of these families living among them. The Hola had a degree of self-rule with a number of emirates (Arabic: see Arabic article) in the south of Iran until the 20th century. Following the ascent of the Pahlavi Dynasty, there was a diminution or abolition of the local ruling families' privileges as elsewhere in Iran.

Hola families[edit]

Pakistani Hola man
  1. Bucheeri – Afro-Persian
  2. Janahi – Persian and Afro-Persian
  3. Foolath - Persian
  4. Alattawi – Afro-Persian
  5. Alawadi – Persian
  6. Galadari – Persian
  7. Gerashi - Persian
  8. Kandari - Persian
  9. Kalandar – Persian
  10. Alhamad – Afro-Persian
  11. Alkhaja – Afro-Persian
  12. Lari - Persian
  13. Bastaki – Persian
  14. Koheeji - Persian
  15. AlQassimi- Persian
  16. Aljowdar – Pakistani-Persian[5]
  17. Fekri – Persian[6]
  18. Mustashar – Pakistani-Persian[7]
  19. Mandi – Persian
  20. Khoury – Persian
  21. AlJasmi - Persian
  22. Al-Ammadi - Persian[8]

Culture and Traditions[edit]

Most of the Huwala families lived in the urban centres of the Persian Gulf states and established themselves as trading business families, making use of their networks across the Persian Gulf. In the Bahraini city of Manama, many settled in the neighbourhood of Awadhiya. They speak a dialect of Persian sometimes referred to as Khodmoni. However today, many Huwala families have become "Arabized" such that relatively few of them speak Persian, or even retain a separate identity. Traditionally, the Huwala have practiced the Shafi`i school of jurisprudence when it comes to Islamic rites, in contrast to the Maliki school practiced by most of the tribal Arabs of the Persian Gulf centres. Mahyawa is a fish sauce is that is regarded as being an essential item of Huwala cuisine.

Notable People[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gerashi family members converted to Shia Islam and some members of the Faqihi family are Shia http://sonsofsunnah.com/2011/04/15/the-common-confusing-with-sunni-persians/
  2. ^ http://sonsofsunnah.com/2012/07/07/1709/?relatedposts_exclude=2444
  3. ^ DNA Test
  4. ^ (Grugni et al. 2012
  5. ^ Aljowdar is the Arabic demonym of a person coming from Gwadar, Pakistan. The book انساب العوائل الهوليه says that the family is Baloch but its members migrated to Iran and intermarried with the Persians living there. It is not to be confused with the non-Hola Arab tribe in Saudi Arabia
  6. ^ Mariram Behnam, Zelzelah, A woman before her time, pg 92 (1994)
  7. ^ This family belongs to the R2 haplogroup which found within Northern Pakistanis
  8. ^ Al-Ammadi is the Arabic demonym of a person originating from Amadideh, a village in the province of Bastak

External links[edit]