Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu (小倉百人一首?) is a classical Japanese anthology of one hundred Japanese waka by one hundred poets. Hyakunin isshu can be translated to "one hundred people, one poem [each]"; it can also refer to the card game of uta-garuta, which uses a deck composed of cards based on the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu.
One of Teika's diaries, the Meigetsuki, says that his son, Fujiwara no Tame'ie, asked him to arrange one hundred poems for Tame'ie's father-in-law, who was furnishing a residence near Mount Ogura; hence the full name of "Ogura Hyakunin Isshu". In order to decorate screens of the residence, Fujiwara no Teika produced the calligraphy poem sheets.
In his own lifetime, Teika was better known for other work. For example, in 1200 (Shōji 2), Teika prepared another anthology of one hundred poems for ex-Emperor Go-Toba. This was called the Shōji Hyakushu.
Hyakunin Isshu, from the Shinkokinshū
Original poem from the Man'yōshū
Poem number 26
A quite different poem is attributed to Sadaijin Fujiwara no Tadahira in the context of a very specific incident. After abdicating, former Emperor Uda visited Mount Ogura in Yamashiro province. He was so greatly impressed by the beauty of autumn colours of the maples that he ordered Fujiwara no Tadahira to encourage Uda's son and heir, Emperor Daigo, to visit the same area. Prince Tenshin or Prince Teishin (貞信公 Teishin Kō?) was Tadahira's posthumous name, and this is the name commonly associated with a poem which observes that "[t]he maples of Mount Ogura, If they could understand, Would keep their brilliant leaves, until [t]he Ruler of this land Pass with his Royal band." The accompanying 18th century illustration shows a person of consequence riding an ox in a procession with attendants on foot. The group is passing through an area of maples. Fujiwara no Teika chose this poem from the Shūi Wakashū for the Hyakunin Isshu.
'*'By modern Romanization, "Miyuki matanamu"; pronounced matanan by use of historical kana orthography.
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu, Arashiyama
In November 2003, the Kyoto Chamber of Commerce and Industry founded the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu Cultural Foundation to promote this work of literature and poetic appreciation.
During the following years, 100 monuments inscribed with the 100 poems from the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu are planned for installation in the nearby vicinity.
The Ogura Hyakunin Isshu has been translated into many languages and into English many times, beginning with Yone Noguchi's Hyaku Nin Isshu in English in 1907. Other translations include William N. Porter, A Hundred Verses from Old Japan (1909); Clay MacCauley, Hyakunin-isshu (Single Songs of a Hundred Poets) (1917); Tom Galt, The Little Treasury of One Hundred People, One Poem Each (1982); Joshua S. Mostow, Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image (1996); Peter McMillan, One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each (2008); and Emiko Miyashita and Michael Dylan Welch, 100 Poets: Passions of the Imperial Court (2008).
Other Hyakunin Isshu anthologies
Many other anthologies compiled along the same criteria—one hundred poems by one hundred poets—include the words hyakunin isshu, notably the World War II-era Aikoku Hyakunin Isshu (愛国百人一首?), or One Hundred Patriotic Poems by One Hundred Poets. Also important is Kyōka Hyakunin Isshu (狂歌百人一首?), a series of parodies of the original Ogura collection.
Many forms of playing game with Hyakunin Isshu exist in Japan.
Also Competitive karuta (Kyogi Karuta).
- Mostow, Joshua. (1996). Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image, p.25.
- Ogurayama: Latitude: 34° 53' 60 N, Longitude: 135° 46' 60 E; Kyoto Prefecture web site: northwest of Arashiyama Park.
- Mostow, p.94.
- Hishikawa, Moronobu; Fujiwara, Sadaie (1680). "100 Poems by 100 Poets". World Digital Library (in Japanese). Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- Brower, Robert H. "Fujiwara Teika's Hundred-Poem Sequence of the 'Shoji Era'." Monumenta Nipponica. Vol. 31, No. 3 (Autumn, 1976), pp. 223-249.
- University of Virginia, Hyakunin Isshu on-line
- Fujiwara no Sadaiie, Clay MacCauley. (1917). Ogura Hyakunin Isshu from Hyakunin-Isshu. Yokohama: Kelly and Walsh, Ltd.
- Fujiwara no Tadahira. "Prince Teishin" (貞信公 Teishin Kō), A Hundred Verses from Old Japan, Being a Translation of the Hyakunin Isshu, p. 26.
- Fujiwara no Tadahira, p. 25.
- Kyoto Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Ogura Hyakunin Isshu, Arashiyama
- Kyoto City Tourism and Culture Information Site: Shigure-den
- Yone Noguchi, Hyaku Nin Isshu in English, Waseda Bungaku (1907)
- Honan, William H. "Why Millions in Japan Read All About Poetry," New York Times. March 6, 2000.
- Nisonin, Kyoto
- Fujiwara no Sadaie, Thomas Galt. (1982). The Little Treasury of One Hundred People, One Poem Each. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 10-ISBN 0-691-06514-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-691-06514-4
- Fujiwara no Sadaie, Yoritsuna Utsunomiya, William Ninnis Porter. (1979) A Hundred Verses from Old Japan, Being a Translation of the Hyaku-nin-isshiu: Being a Translation of the Hyaku-nin-isshiu. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. 10-ISBN 4-8053-0853-2; 13-ISBN 978-4-8053-0853-0
- Mostow, Joshua S., ed. (1996). Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 10-ISBN 0-8248-1705-2; 13-ISBN 978-0-8248-1705-3; OCLC 645187818
- One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each: A Translation of the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu, Peter McMillan, foreword by Donald Keene. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-231-14398-1
- 100 Poets: Passions of the Imperial Court, Emiko Miyashita and Michael Dylan Welch, translators. Tokyo: PIE Books, 2008. ISBN 978-4-89444-757-8 This book is also available as an iPad/iPhone application.
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- Ogura Hyakunin Isshu - 100 Poems by 100 Poets at University of Virginia Library Japanese Text Initiative
- One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each: A Translation of the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu, translated by Peter McMillan, Professor, Kyojin University, Tokyo.
- "The Timeless 100" -(Time magazine; review of Peter McMillan's translation)