Hybrid electric vehicles in the United States

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Historical trend of U.S. cumulative HEV sales from 1999 to 2014.[1][2][3][4][5]

The fleet of hybrid electric vehicles in the United States is the second largest in the world after Japan.[6] Since their inception in 1999, a total of 3,540,199 hybrid electric automobiles and SUVs have been sold in the country through December 2014.[1][2][3][4][5] Cumulative sales since 1999 passed the 2 million mark in May 2011[7] and the 3 million milestone in October 2013.[8] The top selling hybrid electric vehicle in the country is the conventional Toyota Prius, which passed the 1 million mark in April 2011,[9] and has sold 1,498,616 units since 2000 through December 2014, representing a 48.5% market share of all hybrids sold in the U.S. since 1999.[1][2][3][4][5] Cumulative sales of the Prius nameplate reached 1.5 million units in October 2013,[10] representing a 50.1% market share of total hybrid sales in the U.S.[1][2][3][11][12] As of December 2014, the conventional Prius is followed by the Toyota Camry Hybrid, with 308,424 units sold since 2006, and the Honda Civic Hybrid, with cumulative sales of 229,161 vehicles since 2002.[1][2][3][4][5]

California has been the state leading hybrid sales in the U.S. with 55,553 vehicles sold in 2009,[13] 74,932 in 2008,[14] and 91,417 in 2007.[15] In 2009 it was followed by New York (15,438) and Florida (14,949).[13] In terms of new hybrids sold per capita, the District of Columbia was the leader in 2009 with 3.79 hybrids per 1000 residents, followed by California (1.54) and Washington (1.53).[13] The top 5 U. S. metropolitan area markets for sales of hybrid electric vehicles in 2009 were Los Angeles (26,677), New York (21,193), San Francisco (15,799), Washington, D.C. (11,595), and Chicago (8,990).[13] From January to July 2013, the three cities with the highest electric drive car registrations, including hybrids, all-electric cars and plug-in hybrids, were all located in California: Atherton (19.4%) and Los Altos (16.1%) in the Silicon Valley, followed by Santa Monica (15.0%), located in Los Angeles County.[16][17]

Purchases from the Obama administration accounted for 25% of Ford and General Motors hybrid-electric vehicles sold between January 2009 and late 2010. During this period hybrids accounted for about 10% of the 145,473 vehicles bought by the U.S. General Services Administration.[18]

Markets and sales[edit]

Since their inception in 1999, a total of 3,540,199 hybrid electric automobiles and SUVs have been sold in the country through December 2014, led by the Toyota Prius with 1,498,616 units sold since 2000 through December 2014, representing a 48.5% market share of all hybrids sold in the U.S. since their inception.[1][2][3][4][5] The Toyota Prius family is the market leader with 1,731,717 units sold through December 2014, representing a 48.9% market share of total hybrid sales in the U.S.[1][2][3][4][5] Out of the 5.125 million hybrids sold by Toyota Motor Company worldwide through March 2013, the United States accounted for 38% of TMC global hybrid sales.[19]

HEV market share of new car sales in the U.S. between 1999 and 2014.[1][2][3][4][5]

Sales of Prius family vehicles in California represented 26% of all Prius purchases in the U.S. during 2012. With 60,688 units sold during this year, the Prius became the best selling nameplate in California, ahead of the previous leader, the Honda Civic (57,124 units) and the third ranked, the Toyota Camry (50,250 units).[20] Again in 2013, the Prius nameplate was the best selling vehicle in California with 69,728 units sold in the state, ahead of the Honda Civic (66,982) and the Honda Accord (63,194).[21][22] Nationwide, the best selling vehicle in 2013 was the Ford F-Series pickup, which has been the best selling vehicle for more than three decades.[23]

As of December 2014, sales of the conventional Prius are followed by the Toyota Camry Hybrid, with 308,424 units sold since 2006, and the Honda Civic Hybrid, with cumulative sales of 229,161 vehicles since 2002 through 2014.[1][2][3][4][5] Among the hybrids built by American manufacturers, the siblings Lincoln MKZ/Mercury Milan/Fusion Hybrids, with combined sales of 167,815 units since 2009 through 2014, are the top selling models; followed by the Ford Escape Hybrid and its sibling the Mercury Mariner Hybrid with combined sales of 130,803 vehicles between 2004 and 2012, when the hybrid lineup was discontinued. Ranking next is the Ford C-Max Hybrid, with 58,153 units sold since 2012 through 2014, and the Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid with 38,145 units since 2008.[1][2][3][4][5]

2012

A total of 434,498 hybrid electric vehicles were sold during 2012, and the hybrid market share of total new car sales in the country was 3.0%, up from 2.1% in 2011.[3] The top five selling hybrids during 2012 were the Toyota Prius liftback (147,503), the second generation Camry Hybrid (45,626), Prius v (40,669), Prius c (35,733), and the Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (20,754).[3] Toyota sold 223,905 Priuses among the various HEV family members in the U.S. in 2012, representing together a market share of 51.5% of all hybrid sold in the country that year.[3]

2013

During 2013 hybrid sales totaled 495,685 units, up 14.1% from 2012 and representing a market share of 3.19% of new car sales.[4] The top five selling hybrids during this period were the conventional Prius (145,172), second generation Camry Hybrid (44,448), Prius c (41,979), second generation Fusion Hybrid (37,270), and the Prius v (34,989).[4] Combined Prius family vehicles reached 222,140 units representing a market share of 44.8%, down from 51.5% in the year 2012,[3][4] while Ford Motor Company increased its market share of the conventional hybrid market from 7.5% in 2012 to 14.7% in 2013.[4][24]

Market share of U.S. top 10 selling HEV
models in 2014.[5]

Ford experienced record sales of its hybrids models in the U.S. during 2013, with 72,795 units sold, almost triple the 2012 total.[4][25] During the second quarter of 2013 Ford achieved its best hybrid sales quarter ever, up 517% over the same quarter of 2012.[26] In 2013 Toyota’s hybrid market share in the U.S. declined from 2012 totals due to new competition, particularly from Ford with the arrival of new products such as the C-Max Hybrid and the new styling of the Fusion. Except for the Prius c, sales of the other models of the Prius family and the Camry Hybrid suffered a decline from 2012, while the Fusion Hybrid experienced a 164.3% increased from 2012, and C-Max Hybrid sales climbed 156.6%.[4]

2014

Hybrid sales totaled 452,152 units, down 8.8% from the previous year. The hybrid market share was 2.75% of new car sales, down from 3.19% in 2013, and the lowest since 2011. The best selling Prius Liftback was down 15.4% from 2013, driving the decline in sales of the segment.[5] The top five selling hybrids in 2014 were the conventional Prius (122,776), Prius c (40,570), second generation Camry Hybrid (39,515), second generation Fusion Hybrid (35,405), and the Prius v (30,762), all down from the previous year.[5] Combined Prius family vehicles reached 194,108 units representing a market share of 42.9%, down from 44.8% the previous year.[4][5] Some of the few models with a significant growth in their year-to-year sales were the second generation Honda Accord, Infinti Q50 Hybrid, Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid, and the Chevrolet Impala eAssist.[5]

Historical sales 1999-2014[edit]

The following table presents historical hybrid sales figures by vehicle model in the United States since 1999 through December 30, 2014, in order of total historical sales from 1999 to 2014.[1][2][4][5] Family of vehicles sharing nameplate/marque (i.e. Toyota Prius) or exactly the same powertrain (i.e. Ford Fusion Hybrid and Lincoln MKZ Hybrid) are grouped together.

Annual hybrid electric vehicle sales in the United States by model
between 1999 and 2014
Vehicle 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
1999-2014
Toyota Prius
Prius c
Prius v
5,562 15,556 20,119 24,600 53,991 107,897 106,971 181,221 158,574 139,682 140,928 136,463(2) 147,503 145,172 122,776 1,498,616
35,733 41,979 40,570 118,282
40,669 34,989 30,762 114,819
223,905 222,140 274,500 1,731,717
Toyota Camry 31,341 54,477 46,272 22,887 14,587 9,241 45,656 44,448 39,515 308,424
Honda Civic 13,700 21,800 25,571 25,864 31,251 32,575 31,297 15,119 7,336 4,703 7,156 7,719 5,070 229,161
Ford Fusion
Lincoln MKZ
Mercury Milan
15,554
0
1,468
20,816
1,192
1,416
11,286
5,739
0
14,100
6,067
0
37,270
7,469
0
35,405
10,033
0
134,431
30,500
2,884
17,022 23,424 17,025 20,167 44,739 45,438 167,815
Lexus RX400h/450h 20,674 20,161 17,291 15,200 14,464 15,119 10,723 12,223 11,307 9,351 146,513
Ford Escape
Mercury Mariner
2,993
0
18,797
998
20,149
3,174
21,386
3,722
17,173
2,329
14,787
1,693
11,182
890
10,089
0
1,441
0
0
0
0
0
117,997
12,806
2,993 19,795 23,323 25,108 19,502 16,480 12,072 10,089 1,441 0 0 130,803
Toyota Highlander 17,989 31,485 22,052 19,441 11,086 7,456 4,549 5,291 5,070 3,621 128,040
Hyundai Sonata
Kia Optima
19,672(2) 20,754 21,761 21,052 83,240
10,084 13,919 13,776 37,779
30,838 35,680 34,828 121,019
Honda Insight 17 3,788 4,726 2,216 1,200 583 666 722 0 0 20,572 20,962 15,549 5,846 4,802 3,965 85,614
Lexus CT 200h 14,381 17,671 15,071 17,673 64,796
Ford C-Max Hybrid 10,935 28,056 19,162 58,153
Honda Accord 1,061 16,826 5,598 3,405 196 0 0 0 0 979 13,977 42,042
Chevrolet Malibu 2,093 4,162 405 24 16,664 13,779 1,018 38,145
Nissan Altima 8,388 8,819 9,357 6,710 3,236 103 0 0 36,613
Lexus ES 300h 7,041 16,562 14,837 38,440
Toyota Avalon 747 16,468 17,048 34,263
Honda CR-Z 5,249 11,330 4,192 4,550 3,562 28,883
Buick LaCrosse eAssist 1,801 12,010 7,133 7,353 28,297
Lexus HS 250h 6,699 10,663 2,864 649 5 0 20,880
Chevy Tahoe
GMC Yukon
3,745
1,610
3,300
1,933
1,426
1,221
519
598
533
560
376
288
65
31
9,964
6,241
5,355 5,233 2,647 1,117 1,093 664 96 16,205
Saturn Vue 4,403 2,920 2,656 50 0 0 0 0 10,029
Subaru XV Crosstrek Hybrid 7,926 7,926
Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid 162 5,655 1,939 7,756
Lexus GS 450h 1,784 1,645 678 469 305 282 607 522 183 6,475
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
1,598
0
2,393
0
1,165
0
469
471
104
65
5,729
536
940 169 30 6,295
Cadillac Escalade 801 1,958 1,210 819 708 372 41 5,909
Buick Regal eAssist 123 2,654 2,893 662 6,332
Porsche Cayenne 206 1,571 1,180 615 650 4,222
Infiniti Q50 307 3,456 3,763
Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid 334 2,480 2,814
Acura ILX 972 1,461 379 2,812
Lexus LS600hL 937 907 258 129 84 54 115 65 2,549
Infiniti QX60 Hybrid 676 1,678 2,354
Infiniti M35h/Q70 378 691 475 180 1,724
Saturn Aura 772 285 527 54 0 0 0 0 1,638
BMW ActiveHybrid 3 402 905 151 1,458
Audi Q5 Hybrid 270 854 283 1,407
Mercedes-Benz S400 801 309 121 64 10 1,305
Mazda Tribute 570 484 90 0 0 1,144
BMW ActiveHybrid 5 404 520 112 1,036
Volkswagen Touareg Hybrid 390 250 118 30 788
Porsche Panamera S 52 570 164 0 786
BMW ActiveHybrid 7 102 338 231 31 45 747
Mercedes-Benz ML450 627 1 20 11 20 679
Chevrolet Impala eAssist 56 565 621
Mercedes-Benz E400 Hybrid 282 158 440
Lexus NX Hybrid 354 354
BMW ActiveHybrid X6 205 43 4 0 0 252
Acura RLX Hybrid 133 133
Chrysler Aspen 46 33 0 0 0 0 0 79
Dodge Durango 9 0 0 0 0 0 9
All hybrids sold 17 9,350 20,282 36,035 47,600 84,199 209,711 252,636 352,274 312,386 290,271 274,210 268,752 434,498 495,771 452,152 3,540,199
New car sales
(millions)[4][5][27][28]
16.043 15.869 14.646 15.067 14.754 15.012 14.966 14.264 13.819 13.195 10.402 11.589 12.734 14.442 15.531 16,435 228,766
Hybrid market share 0.0001% 0.06% 0.14% 0.24% 0.32% 0.56% 1.40% 1.77% 2.55% 2.37% 2.79% 2.37% 2.11% 3.01% 3.19% 2.75% 1.55%
Notes: (1) Sources: 2011, 2012 and 2013 HybridCars.com,[2][3][4] all other figures from Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center (U.S. DoE).[1]
(2) For 2011 Toyota reported consolidated figures for the Prius family, therefore during 2011, sales of the Toyota Prius v, which began sales by mid October 2011, were reported together with the conventional Prius liftback. The figure breaks down in 128,064 conventional Prius and 8,399 Prius v. During 2011, sales of the Kia Optima Hybrid were reported together with the Hyundai Sonata.[2][3]

Geographical distribution[edit]

The top 5 U. S. metropolitan area markets for sales of hybrid electric vehicles in 2009 were Los Angeles (26,677), New York (21,193), San Francisco (15,799), Washington, D.C. (11,595), and Chicago (8,990).[13] The following table summarizes the top metropolitan area markets in terms of new hybrids sold per capita.

Top U.S. metropolitan markets for
hybrid electric vehicles in 2008-2009[13][29]
Rank
2009
Metropolitan
Area
New registered
hybrids
per 1000
households
(2009)
Rank
2008
Metropolitan
Area
New registered
hybrids
per 1000
households
(2008)
1 Portland, OR 8.8 1 Portland, OR 12.17
2 Helena, MT 6.7 2 San Francisco, CA 8.84
3 San Francisco, CA 6.7 3 Monterey, CA 7.16
4 Washington, DC 5.1 4 Santa Barbara, CA 6.94
5 Los Angeles, CA 4.8 5 San Diego, CA 6.57
6 San Diego, CA 4.7 6 Los Angeles, CA 6.08
7 Seattle, WA 4.7 7 Charlottesville, VA 5.42
8 Juneau, AK 4.6 8 Seattle, WA 4.90
9 Santa Barbara, CA 4.4 9 Washington, DC 4.85
10 Monterey, CA 4.3 10 Sacramento, CA 4.85
U.S. metropolitan area
average
1.8 U.S. metropolitan area
average
2.18

Considering hybrid sales between January 2010 through September 2011, the top selling metropolitan region was the San Francisco Bay Area, with 8.4% of all new cars sold during that period, followed by Monterey-Salinas with 6.9%, and Eugene, Oregon, with 6.1%. The following seven top selling markets are also on the West Coast, includingSeattle-Tacoma and Los Angeles with 5.7%, San Diego with 5.6%, and Portland with 5.4%. The Washington D.C. Metro Area, with 4.2%, is the next best selling region out of the West Coast.[30]

Economical and environmental performance comparison[edit]

Economic and environmental performance comparison
among hybrid models sold in the U.S. (models 2009-2014)[31]
Vehicle Year
model
EPA
City
mileage
(mpg)
EPA
Highway
mileage
(mpg)
Annual
fuel
cost (1)
(USD)
Tailpipe
emissions
(grams per
mile CO2)
EPA
Air Pollution
Score
(2)
Annual
Petroleum
Use
(barrel)
Toyota Prius c 2012/13 53 46 $1,050 178 7/8* 6.6
Toyota Prius (3rd gen) 2010 to 2013 51 48 $1,050 178 8/9* 6.6
Honda Accord (2nd gen) 2014 50 45 $1,100 188 NA 7.0
Toyota Prius (2nd gen) 2009 48 45 $1,150 193 8/9* 7.2
Honda Civic Hybrid (3rd gen) 2012/13 44 44 $1,200 202 7/8 7.5
Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid 2013/14 42 48 $1,250 200 9/9* 7.3
Ford Fusion (2nd gen) 2013/14 44 41 $1,250 209 7/9* 7.8
Toyota Prius v 2012 to 2014 44 40 $1,250 212 7/8* 7.8
Lexus CT 200h 2011 to 2013 43 40 $1,250 212 7/8* 7.8
Honda Insight (2nd gen) 2012 to 2014 41 44 $1,250 212 7/8 7.8
2010/11 40 43 $1,300 217 7/8 8.0
Honda Civic Hybrid (2nd gen) 2011 40 43 $1,300 217 8 8.0
2009/10 40 45 $1,250 212 9 7.8
Toyota Camry Hybrid LE (XV50)
Toyota Camry Hybrid XLE (XV50)
2012 to 2014 43 39 $1,300 217 7/9* 8.0
40 38 $1,300 222 7/9* 8.2
Lexus ES 300h 2013 40 39 $1,300 222 7/8* 8.2
Toyota Avalon Hybrid 2013 40 39 $1,300 224 7/8* 8.2
Ford C-Max Hybrid 2013/14 42 37 $1,300 225 7/9* 8.2
Ford Fusion Hybrid
Mercury Milan Hybrid
Lincoln MKZ Hybrid
2010 to 2012 41 36 $1,350 228 7 8.4
2010/11 41 36 $1,350 228 7 8.4
2011/12 41 36 $1,350 228 7 8.4
Lincoln MKZ Hybrid (2nd gen) 2013/14 38 37 $1,400 233 7/9 8.7
Acura ILX Hybrid 2013/14 39 38 $1,500 234 7/9* 8.7
Hyundai Sonata Hybrid
Kia Optima Hybrid
2013 36 40 $1,400 237 9 8.7
2011/12 34 39 $1,450 212 9 9.1
Hyundai Sonata Hybrid Limited
Kia Optima Hybrid EX
2013 36 40 $1,400 239 8 8.9
2011/12 35 39 $1,400 242 8 8.9
Honda CR-Z CVT 2013/14 36 39 $1,400 238 8/9* 8.9
2011/12 35 39 $1,400 240 8/9* 8.9
Lexus HS 250h 2010 to 2012 35 34 $1,500 254 7/8* 9.4
2013 29 34 $1,850 283 NA 10.6
Honda CR-Z Manual 6 spd 2013/14 31 38 $1,550 261 9/9* 9.7
2011/12 31 37 $1,550 261 9/9* 9.7
Nissan Altima Hybrid 2009/10 35 33 $1,550 261 9.0* 9.7
2011 33 33 $1,600 269 9* 10.0
Toyota Camry Hybrid (XV40) 2009/10 33 34 $1,550 261 7 9.7
2011 31 35 $1,600 269 7 10.0
Ford Escape Hybrid FWD(3)
Ford Escape Hybrid 4WD
2010 to 2012 34 31 $1,650 278 7 10.3
2010 to 2012 30 27 $1,800 306 7 11.4
Infiniti Q50 2014 29 36 $1,850 286 6 10.6
Lexus GS 450h 2013 29 34 $1,850 283 8 10.6
Infiniti M35h
Infiniti M35h AWD
2014 29 36 $1,850 286 6 10.6
2014 28 35 $1,900 296 6 11
Lexus RX 450h
Lexus RX 450h AWD
2010 to 2014 32 28 $1,900 297 6 11
2014 30 28 $2,000 309 NA 11.4
Chevrolet Malibu eAssist
Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid
2013/14 25 37 $1,800 305 5 11.4
2009/10 26 34 $1,800 306 5 11.4
Buick Regal eAssist
Buick LaCrosse eAssist
2012/13 25 36 $1,800 305 5 11.4
Buick Regal eAssist
Buick LaCrosse eAssist
2014 25 36 $1,800 308 5/8 11.4
Chevrolet Impala eAssist 2014 25 36 $1,800 308 5/8 11.4
Toyota Highlander Hybrid 4WD 2011 to 2013 28 28 $1,900 317 8 11.8
2009/10 27 25 $2,000 342 8 12.7
Saturn Vue Hybrid 6 cyl, 3.6L
Saturn Vue Hybrid 4 cyl, 2.4 L
2009 27 30 $1,900 317 NA 11.8
2009/10 25 32 $1,900 317 6 11.8
BMW ActiveHybrid 3 2013/14 25 33 $2,050 313 6 11.8
Mercedes-Benz E400 Hybrid 2013/14 24 30 $2,200 336 9/9 12.7
Audi Q5 Hybrid 2013/14 24 30 $2,200 337 6/6 12.7
BMW ActiveHybrid 5 2013/14 23 30 $2,200 346 6 12.7
BMW ActiveHybrid 7/7L 2013/14 22 30 $2,300 350 6 13.2
2011/12 17 24 $2,850 444 6 16.5
Porsche Panamera S Hybrid 2012/13 22 30 $2,300 364 6 13.2
Lexus GS 450h 2009/11 22 25 $2,500 386 7 14.3
Porshe Cayenne S Hybrid 2011 to 2014 20 24 $2,750 413 6 15.7
VW Touareg Hybrid 2011 to 2014 20 24 $2,250 413 6 15.7
Mercedes-Benz ML450 2010/11 20 24 $2,600 404 8 15.0
Mercedes-Benz S400 2010 to 2013 19 25 $2,750 414 9 15.7
Cadillac Escalade Hybrid 2WD/4WD
Cadillac Escalade Hybrid 2WD
Cadillac Escalade Hybrid 2WD
2011 to 2013 20 23 $2,500 415 6 15.7
2010 21 22 $2,400 404 NA 15.0
2009 20 21 $2,650 444 5 16.5
Dodge Durango HEV 4WD 2009 20 22 $2,500 423 NA 15.7
Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid 2WD
Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid 4WD
Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid 2WD
GMC Sierra Hybrid 2WD
GMC Yukon Hybrid2WD
Silverado/Tahoe/Sierra/Yukon 4WD
2009 21 22 $2,500 423 5 15.7
2009 20 20 $2,650 444 5 16.5
2010 21 22 $2,400 404 5 15.0
2011 to 2013 20 23 $2,500 418 6 15.7
2011 to 2013 20 23 $2,500 423 6 15.7
Lexus LS 600h L 2009/10 20 22 $2,750 423 8 15.7
2011 to 2013 19 23 $2,850 444 8 16.5
BMW ActiveHybrid X6 2011 17 19 $3,200 494 5/6 18.3
Source: U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency[31]
Notes: (1) Estimates assumes 15,000 miles (24,000 km) per year (45% highway, 55% city) using average fuel price US$3.50/gallon for regular gasoline and US$3.82/gallon for premium gasoline (national average as of September 27, 2013).[32]
(2) All states except California and Northeastern states, * otherwise.
(3) Performance is the same for the Mazda Tribute Hybrid 2WD and the Mercury Mariner Hybrid 2WD.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "U.S. HEV sales by Model (1999-2013)". Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center (U.S. DoE). Retrieved 2015-01-18.  Click on the graph to show sales by model and year total. Source: HybridCars.com)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "December 2011 Dashboard: Sales Still Climbing". HybridCARS.com. 2012-01-09. Retrieved 2012-01-10. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Jeff Cobb (2013-04-22). "December 2012 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-09-10.  See the section: December 2012 Hybrid Cars Numbers. A total of 434,498 hybrid electric vehicles were sold during 2012. Ford sold 32,543 hybrids in the U.S. during 2012, including 14,100 Ford Fusion Hybrids, 10,935 C-Max Hybrids, 6,067 Lincoln MKZ Hybrids, and 1,441 Ford Escape Hybrids.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Jeff Cobb (2014-01-06). "December 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Jeff Cobb (2015-01-06). "December 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-01-22. 
  6. ^ 国内のHV車販売、100万台突破へ…14年 [Domestic hybrid car sales, one million unit mark topped in 2014]. Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). 2014-12-30. Retrieved 2015-01-24.  Over 1 million hybrid electric cars were sold in Japan in 2014.
  7. ^ Christie Schweinsberg (2011-06-07). "U.S. Hybrid Sales Hit 2 Million Mark". Ward's. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  8. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-11-04). "Americans Buy Their 3,000,000th Hybrid". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 
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  11. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-10-03). "September 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-10-03.  See the section: September 2013 Hybrid Car Sales Numbers: A total of 389,910 hybrid vehicles were sold in the U.S. between January and September 2013.
  12. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-12-05). "November 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-12-09. See the section: U.S. Hybrid sales for November 2013.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "December 2009 Dashboard: Year-End Tally". hybridCars.com. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  14. ^ "February 2009 Hybrid Market Dashboard". hybridCars.com. 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  15. ^ "February 2008 Hybrid Market Dashboard". hybridCars.com. 2008-03-14. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
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  17. ^ Jaclyn Trop (2013-09-20). "Santa Monica Bets on Electric Cars, but Consumers Are Slow to Switch". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  18. ^ Scott Doggett (2010-11-23). "Obama Administration Buys Nearly 1 in 4 Hybrids as Consumer Market Slumps". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 2011-02-05. 
  19. ^ Toyota Press Room (2013-04-17). "Toyota cumulative global hybrid sales pass 5M, nearly 2M in US". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-04-17. 
  20. ^ Jerry Hirsch (2013-01-22). "Toyota Prius topples Honda Civic as bestselling car in California". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-01-22.  The sales figure includes the Prius liftback, Prius v, Prius c and Prius PHV.
  21. ^ Bloomberg (2014-02-13). "Toyota Prius keeps Calif. sales crown; Tesla moves up". Automotive News. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  22. ^ California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (February 2014). "California Auto Outlook: Fourth Quarter 2013". CNCDA. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  23. ^ Jerry Hirsch (2014-02-15). "California auto buyers favor Toyota Prius; rest of U.S. prefers trucks". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  24. ^ Mike Millikin (2013-10-04). "Ford doubles electric drive market share in US from 2012 to 2013; surging with plug-in hybrids". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  25. ^ Craig Trudell (2013-12-30). "Ford Widens U.S. Sales Lead Over Toyota on Hybrid Models". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2014-05-01. 
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