Hyderabad, Sindh

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This article is about Hyderabad city in Sindh, Pakistan. For Hyderabad, capital of Telangana in India, see Hyderabad. For other uses, see Hyderabad (disambiguation).
Hyderabad, Sindh
حيدرآباد
Hyderabad, Sindh is located in Sindh
Hyderabad, Sindh
Location in Sindh
Coordinates: 25°22′45″N 68°22′06″E / 25.37917°N 68.36833°E / 25.37917; 68.36833Coordinates: 25°22′45″N 68°22′06″E / 25.37917°N 68.36833°E / 25.37917; 68.36833
Country Pakistan
District Hyderabad District
Autonomous towns 5
Union councils 20
Area
 • Total 3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)
Elevation 13 m (43 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 3 Million
Demonym Hyderabadi
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC+6)
Area code(s) 022
Website www.hyderabad.gov.pk

Hyderabad (Sindhi: حيدرآباد ]]) is the 2nd largest city in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It is the 4th largest city in the country. The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus known as Neroon Kot (Sindhi: نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the HQ of the district of Hyderabad. The last Battle of Amir Talpor and the British took place in this city in 1843. Before the creation of Pakistan, it was known as the Paris of India, for its roads used to be washed with river water.

Hyderabad is a hot and humid city in the south of the nation and has been a staging point for literary campaigns particularly oriented towards the Sindhi language and a birthplace of a few influential poets and Sufi dervishes. Rich with culture and tradition, the city is the largest bangle producer in the world and serves as a transit between the rural and the urban Sindh.

Stationed close to important architectural digs like the pre-Harappan Amri at 110 km, the region holds extreme importance to archaeologists the world over. The city is also known for its medical and educational institutions. It is also home to one of the oldest universities in the region, the University of Sindh.

History[edit]

Woldemar Friedrich Street scene in Hyderabad in 1890
The Pacco Qillo built by Ghulam Shah still remains today but in a desolate state and a dire need of repair.
A rare photograph of Hyderabad from the late 1800s. The triangular structures on the rooftops are wind catchers, funnelling the cool breeze into the homes below, called a moug.
The Pacco Qillo is well known and is one of the greatest monuments of Sindhi heritage. The Pacco Qillo was established by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro in the year 1762 and had become one of the largest military garrisons in the region.

In AD 711, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley, bringing South Asian societies into contact with Islam, succeeding partly because Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king that ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty.[2][3] a view questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region,[4] especially that of the royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach himself may have been a Buddhist.[5][6] The forces of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir in alliance with the Jats and other regional governors.

Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (Nerun or Nerun Kot) (meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept of the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks giving it the name Pacco Qillo (Sindhi: پڪو قلعو) meaning the strong fort.[citation needed]

After the death of the last Kalhoro, the Talpur dynasty ruled the region. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.[citation needed]

The City has a history of Sufism. In the 18th Century Syeds from Multan migrated and settled at Tando Jahania making it a sacred place for Muslims. These Syeds came here from Uch Sharif (Bahawalpur District) via Jahanian (Khanewal District 42 km from Multan). These were the descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangasht a famous Sufi saint.[7][8][9][10] The family's lineage is linked to Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari of Uch Sharif( Punjab, Pakistan). Tando Jahania is a small town in the city known for Sufism and Azadari.[citation needed]

The Baloch Talpur rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat, the invasion of expanding British colonial empire. The British wanted to annexe Sindh due to their strategic interests in the Punjab region and Afghanistan. The Talpur Amir signed a peace agreement that gave significant concessions to the British. After signing this peace agreement Amir Talpur demobilised his volunteer army. The British General Napier also started to march his army back towards Bombay. When the General Napier heard that the Talpur Amir had demobilised his Baloch army he turned back his army and again threatened Hyderabad. The peace agreement with Talpur Amir was of no consequence compared to the strategic interests of the British colonial empire. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. General Napier was firmly determined in conquering Sindh and plundering Hyderabad. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 when the Talpur Amirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The Amirs of Hyderabad suffered great loss, their Fort was plundered, thousands were killed and Amirs themselves were exiled to Rangoon, Burma – never to see Sindh again. The British made the city part of the Bombay Presidency of British colonial empire.[citation needed]

Independence of Pakistan[edit]

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslims refugees from India settled down in the Hyderabad. At the time of independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muhajirs began to immigrate to Pakistan and many settled in the city of Hyderabad. These refugee Muslim lost everything in India and were settled in refugee camps. Nearly all Hindus of Hyderabad left for India due to better socio-economic prospects in India.

The massive migration of Muhajirs into Pakistan after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 raised the population levels of the city to an extreme. The late 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots and violence broke out between the Muhajirs and Sindhi nationalist parties due to which the social fabric of the city was damaged.

Capital of Sindh[edit]

After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Karachi the former provincial capital of Sindh from 1936 was made the Federal Capital of Pakistan. From 1947 to 1955 the city of Hyderabad served as the capital of Sindh province,which was later dissolved and one unit was formed named West Pakistan. Lahore was the capital of West Pakistan. In 1969 Karachi regained the status of capital of newly made province Sindh which included Khayrpur state as well.

Geography and climate[edit]

Located at 25.367 °N latitude and 68.367 °E longitude with an elevation of 13 metres (43 ft), Hyderabad is located on the east bank of the Indus River and is roughly 150 kilometres (93 mi) away from Karachi, the provincial capital. Two of Pakistan's largest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad. Several towns surrounding the city include Kotri at 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi), Jamshoro at 8.1 kilometres (5.0 mi), Hattri at 5.0 kilometres (3.1 mi) and Husri at 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi).

Hyderabad has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), with warm conditions year-round. The period from mid-April to late June (before the onset of the monsoon) is the hottest of the year, with highs peaking in May at 41.4 °C (106.5 °F). During this time, winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is more pleasant. Winters are warm, with highs around 25 °C (77 °F), though lows can often drop below 10 °C (50 °F) at night. The highest temperature of 48.5 °C (119 °F) was recorded on 7 June 1991, while the lowest temperature of 1 °C (34 °F) was recorded on 8 February 2012.

In recent years Hyderabad has seen great downpours. In February 2003, Hyderabad received 105 millimetres (4.13 in) of rain in 12 hours, leaving many dead.[11][12] The years of 2006 and 2007 saw close contenders to this record rain with death tolls estimated in the hundreds. The highest single-day rain total of 250.7 millimetres (9.87 in) was recorded on 12 September 1962, while the wettest month was September 1962, at 286 millimetres (11.26 in).


Climate data for Hyderabad, Pakistan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.3
(91.9)
38.2
(100.8)
43.4
(110.1)
46.0
(114.8)
48.4
(119.1)
48.5
(119.3)
45.5
(113.9)
43.9
(111)
45.0
(113)
44.0
(111.2)
41.0
(105.8)
36.0
(96.8)
48.5
(119.3)
Average high °C (°F) 24.7
(76.5)
28.1
(82.6)
33.8
(92.8)
38.8
(101.8)
41.4
(106.5)
40.1
(104.2)
37.3
(99.1)
36.0
(96.8)
36.5
(97.7)
36.9
(98.4)
31.0
(87.8)
26.0
(78.8)
34.2
(93.6)
Average low °C (°F) 11.1
(52)
13.8
(56.8)
18.6
(65.5)
22.9
(73.2)
26.1
(79)
28.0
(82.4)
27.7
(81.9)
26.6
(79.9)
25.3
(77.5)
22.4
(72.3)
17.3
(63.1)
12.8
(55)
21.1
(70)
Record low °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
4.0
(39.2)
9.0
(48.2)
12.0
(53.6)
19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68)
21.4
(70.5)
22.8
(73)
20.6
(69.1)
15.0
(59)
6.0
(42.8)
3.0
(37.4)
3.3
(37.9)
Rainfall mm (inches) 1.5
(0.059)
5.4
(0.213)
4.8
(0.189)
6.0
(0.236)
3.6
(0.142)
9.6
(0.378)
53.0
(2.087)
62.3
(2.453)
19.4
(0.764)
4.2
(0.165)
1.9
(0.075)
2.5
(0.098)
174.2
(6.859)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 272.8 257.1 288.3 288.0 313.1 279.0 235.6 251.1 285.0 306.9 279.0 272.8 3,328.7
Source #1: [13]
Source #2: HKO (sun only, 1961–1990) [14]


Economy[edit]

Hyderabad is an important commercial centre where industries includes: textiles, sugar, cement, manufacturing of mirror, soap, ice, paper, pottery, plastics, tanneries, hosiery mills and film. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Handicraft industries, including silver and gold work, lacquer ware, ornamented silks, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well established. Hyderabad produces almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in Pakistan. Hyderabad is a major commercial centre for the agricultural produce of the surrounding area, including millet, rice, wheat, cotton, and fruit.[15] Pakistani government recently discovered a large gas deposit in Hyderabad which has not been put in production. One of the most famous deserts is coffee cake of famous bombay bakery. Rabri (a desert prepared from pure milk) is also very delisious and famous. Paan (a chewing leaf) from gulab paan house is very popular. In last decade, software industry has also emerged noticeably in the city, like progmatec.com. Illis (PALLA) fish is most tasty and popular dish.

Government[edit]

A night view of Zila Nazim Office, Hyderabad.

The city of Hyderabad is where the district headquarters are located and the district government is seated. The district government elections are not held since the last governments term expired and the posts of District Nazim and Naib Nazim are vacant at the moment.

Electronic governance[edit]

The government of the city does not yet support fully functional e-governance and has no website but the District Government of Hyderabad liberally uses the television as a mode of communication with the people of the city instructing them on public issues and awareness about projects under way. As of 2008, the district Hyderabad enabled its e-governance platform to support people via the Internet and other new media platforms.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Before the government of Abubaker Nizamani, the District Hyderabad included the present-day District of Badin. Then in the 2005-6 General Pervaiz Musharraf again divided it into four more districts Matiyari, Tando Allahyar, Tando Mohammad Khan and Hyderabad. Hyderabad district was subdivided into four talukas[16]

  1. Hyderabad City Taluka
  2. Hyderabad Taluka (rural)
  3. Latifabad
  4. Qasimabad

Current development projects[edit]

To ease traffic congestion six flyover bridges are built in the city. These include Latifabad unit # 7 flyover, Hala Naka flyover, Sakhi Abdul Wahab flyover near railway station, Hosh Mohammad Sheedi flyover at Latif Chowk, Shahbaz Qalandar flyover at Shahbaz chowk and Ghulam Shah Kalhoro flyover at Railway crossing on Hyderabad-Mirpurkhas Road.

An expo center of international standards is also built near channel road. However, no major exhibition has been held yet.

Two filter plants to filter fresh water have been built at a cost of about Rs. 80,000,000. Their inclusion in the water system would ensure continuous supply of clean drinking water.

Demographics[edit]

A Sindhi woman on the banks of the River Indus in the outskirts of Hyderabad

Hyderabad is noteworthy in Sindh and Pakistan generally for its comparative tolerance towards religious and ethnic minorities. The independence of Pakistan in 1947 saw the influx of Muslim Urdu-speaking Muhajirs from India fleeing from anti-Muslim pograms. As per the census of Pakistan 1998, Sindhi account for a majority of the population; other communities in the city include a large number of Punjabis, Saraikis, Pashtuns, Memons and Balochs.

A large influx of Pakhtuns and Punjabis were attracted to Hyderabad after the Indus treaty settlement. Most Punjabis and Pakhtuns are distinct and separately living near the railway station and its vicinity. The city therefore has cosmopolitan atmosphere with multiethnic and multicultural communities.

Hindus account for the largest religious minority forming 5% of the total population of the city. While Christians account for 1% of the total population, Hyderabad is the seat of a Diocese of the Church of Pakistan and has five churches and a cathedral.

Noteworthy attractions[edit]

Tombs of the Talpur Mirs (Cubbas), now in Hirabad in Hyderabad, Sindh. These shrines are now in a desolate state.
  • Amri: an archaeological site dating back to 3600 BC, 110-kilometre (68 mi) from the city, is the remains of a pre-Harrapan fortified town.
  • Pacco Qillo (the Hyderabad Fort) and the Kachha Qilla (lit. the weak fort): fortified residences that were built by the Talpur rulers to keep out invaders during the 17th century.
  • The Tombs of Talpur Mirs: colloquially known as Cubbas in Hirabad, tomb sites of the former rulers of Sindh who were defeated by the British in the famous battle of Miani.
  • Agham Kot: an archaeological site containing the reminence and tombs of an ancient empire.
  • Rani Bagh: formerly a zoo named after Queen Victoria of England (The zoo was founded by the British colonial local administration; Rani means "Queen" in Urdu), has been renovated and has become a very beautiful park with exotic animals such as lions, zebras, different species of birds as well as horses.
  • Hussainabad Park: a central park with a man-made lake, home to various bird life.
  • Mustafa Park: a newly inaugurated park at Noorani Basti with life scale animal models.
  • Ranikot Fort: one of the largest forts in the world according to circumference. Located 90 km from the city.
  • Sindh Museum: a museum featuring the history and heritage of Sindh and the Indus Valley Civilization. Items from various ruling periods of Sindh, including Samma, Soomra, Kalhora and Talpur periods can be found at the museum.
  • Institute of Sindhology Museum: an exhibition of dioramas at the University of Sindh campus that display many aspects of the history of Sindh, its heritage, music and culture. Worth noticing are the ones that depict the lifestyles of the desert tribes of Thar and Kohistan.
  • Resham Gali, Chhotki Ghiti and Shahi Bazaar: some of Hyderabad's oldest bazaars serving arts, crafts, embroidery and jewellery of Sindhi heritage.
  • The mighty river Indus: the largest river in Pakistan and flows alongside the city of Hyderabad. Its banks touching Hyderabad are known to have some of the finest fishing spots in Pakistan.
  • Navalrai Market Clock Tower: built in 1914 is a remnant of a pre-independence fish and meat market in the heart of Hirabad.
  • The Badshahi Bungalow: palace of prince Mir Hassan Ali Khan Talpur, the son of the last ruler of Hyderabad Mir Naseer Khan Talpur. This Palace is located in Tando of Talpur Mirs in Latifabad.
  • New Hyderabad City: an extension of the city of Hyderabad, best known for its famous 12-acre (49,000 m2) park, Lake View Park, which features a man made lake and beautiful gardens. The park has become a recreational spot for the local families, specially on national holidays.

Sport[edit]

Cricket is the most popular game in Hyderabad. The city is home to the cricket team Hyderabad Hawks. Their home ground is the Niaz Stadium. It has a seating capacity of 25,000, known for the first ever hat-trick in an One Day International (ODI) taken by the Pakistani bowler Jalal-ud-Din against Australia in 1982. Many test matches were also played at Niaz Stadium. Nowadays many visiting test playing countries refuse to play in Hyderabad because of lack of 5 star hotel. Hyderabad also has a hockey stadium. There is another stadium in Latifabad called Board Stadium mostly catering to school sports under the supervision of BISE (Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education) Hyderabad.

Education[edit]

Before independence of Pakistan, the education opportunities were many for both Hindus and Musilms.

As a gateway between the rural Sindh and the urban Sindh, Hyderabad attracts students from the lesser developed regions of Sindh. The city has a large number of schools, colleges and universities.

A former nerve center of Sindhi nationalist and literary movements, the city now has better education facilities and new universities, colleges and schools. At one time a hub of economic, educational and cultural activities, a breeding ground of academicians, philanthropists, writers, lawyers, politicians, journalists, actors and actresses, Hyderabad also had its industrialists, trade unionists, political activists, bureaucrats, bankers and diplomats who made a significant contribution to Pakistani society. But this gracious city now seems to be slowly dying, although it still produces over a couple of dozen major and minor newspapers in both Sindhi and Urdu.[15]

Universities and colleges[edit]

The University of Sindh [4] is the dominant player in educational reforms since its inception in 1947. The University of Sindh,the second oldest university of the country, was constituted under the University of Sindh Act. No. XVII of 1947 passed by the Legislative Assembly of Sindh. It was founded in Karachi and relocated to Hyderabad in 1951, only because the city was re-enacted as the capital of the province of Sindh. It has 32 colleges affiliated with it. Main campus of the university is located outside Hyderabad city in Jamshoro town Jamshoro district along with other universities like the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Sindh's first medical school. It also has a Nursing school and Dental school. Sindh Agriculture University in Tando Jam is still in Hyderabad district and focus primarily on agriculture and horticulture. Other universities in the private sector in Hyderabad city include University of East and Isra University.

Most of the colleges are affiliated with the universities above but some enjoy repute built of time like the oldest being the Government Degree College now renamed Government College of Technology, Government Poly-technical college.
Intermediate level colleges in Hyderabad city includes:

  • Army Public College
  • Govt. City Science College Hyderabad
  • Muslim Science College in Tower Market area
  • Govt Nazareth College
  • Government Zubaida College
  • Government College Kari Mori
  • Foundation Public School
  • Public School, Hyderabad
  • Al Falah College, Hyderabad
  • Pakistan Pilot College, Hyderabad
  • Superior College of Science, Hyderabad
  • Sachal Sarmast Commerce College, Hyderabad

Museums and libraries[edit]

Hyderabad is home to a few museums that store the cultural heritage of this land of religious and ethnic diversity. The Institute of Sindhology Museum and the Sindh Museum are a haven for Sindhi enthusiasts in ethnological contexts. Sindh Museum also hosts archæological treasures from Amri. Whilst there are a few libraries in the city, most of them are in a sad state. There is a children's library opposite Lady Duffrin Hospital on Station road, very few people know about its existence. Work is going on Moullana Hasrat Mohani library near pukka kila main gate in the Homestead Hall building. Allama Daudpota Library near Sindh Museum in Qasimabad stores literary work dating back to the earliest Sindhi text.

Transport[edit]

Serving as a socio-economic crossroad to the lesser developed cities and towns in Sindh and linking and networking them with the bigger towns and cities in the nation, Hyderabad holds importance as a vital transportation link via every service. It can be reached by every mean of transportation, be it air, land, water or rail.

The Hyderabad airport has now started functioning after 10 years of closure.

The city has a modestly good airport. The operation was stopped for some years but the airport has started operating again from late 2008. There are 2 flights every week from Hyderabad. Currently the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines, operates prop aircraft into the city with flights to other cities within Pakistan.PIA is established in 1954, is the national carrier; until the mid-1990s it was the sole domestic carrier, but since then a number of small regional airlines and charter services have been established. (

The Indus Highway provides an extensive road network for logistical and commuting possibilities to and from Hyderabad

Hyderabad has a decent road network, but most of the roads are being redone by the National Highway Authority. Hyderabad is deemed the most important milestone on the National Highway which passes through the city. The highway divides into Route N5 going southwest and M9 going north while it forks into the GT Road N5/KLP (Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, ) Road and the Hala Road. Over the years, the M9 has had massive construction work to include six lanes across its 136 km span being the most used highway in Pakistan while the N5 has two lanes to cater to its lesser traffic needs. However, the public has stressed to improve the conditions of the roads within Hyderabad.

There are seven large bus terminals within the city. Some of the most busiest are the Badin Bus Stop near SITE, Tando Bago Coach Stop, Jacobabad-Larkana Bus Stop at Pathan Colony, Nawab Shah Bus Stand at Halla Nakka, Sanghar Coach Stop near Civil Hospital, Karachi Bus Stand near Qasim Chowk and Sammi Daewoo Bus Service To Karachi at Auto-Bhan Road and Latifabad U7.

Hyderabad has a rich rail history. From the starting days of the Scinde Railways to the purchase of the private railway company by the North-Western Railway now Pakistan Railways, Hyderabad has been a major junction on the rail-line, where railway lines proceed in at least three directions: northwards (up-country), southwards (down-country) and eastwards. The railway station is called the Hyderabad Junction railway station. It was built under the British rule in 1890. The city with increasing need of transport facility is still facing a real trouble with respect to the rail transport. One full fledged while two little stations in detha and tando jam are not satisfying the demands for rail travel.

With the city at the banks of the Indus River, the fishermen tend to use riverboats to fish and travel across the waters. Riverboats are not accessible to general public but local fishermen, in attempts of making money for their daily ration, sail people aboard their fishing ferries at Al-manzar, a restaurant at the banks of the Indus.

Buses and trucks have displaced rail as the principal long-distance carrier. A program of deregulation of the road transport industry was undertaken in 1970 and encouraged the entry of a large number of independent operators into the sector. Trucks and tractor-drawn trailers have largely displaced the traditional bullock cart for local transport of produce to markets, but in many rural areas animal power is still crucial to economic survival. Air transport of cargo and passengers has become increasingly important.

All the main cities are connected by major highways, and Pakistan is connected to each of its neighbours, including China, by road. The great majority of roads are paved. The country's main rail route runs more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north from Karachi to Peshawar, via Lahore and Rawalpindi. Another main line branches northwestward from Sukkur to Quetta.

Media[edit]

Literature[edit]

As tradition goes, Sindh had always been a hub for Sufi poets. With a foothold on strong educational foundations, the city of Hyderabad was made into a refuge for thriving literary advocates. Of the few, Mirza Kalich Beg received education from the Government High School, Hyderabad and carried the banner of Sindhi literature across borders.[17] Modern novelists, writers, columnists and researchers like Musharraf Ali Farooqi, Ghulam Mustafa Khan and Qabil Ajmeri also hail from Hyderabad.

Hyderabad has served many Sindhi literary campaigns throughout the history of Pakistan as is evident from the daily newspapers and periodicals that are published in the city. A few worth mention dailies are the Kawish,[18] Ibrat,[19] and Daily Sindh.[20]

Radio and television[edit]

With the inauguration of a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950, it was possible to lay the foundations for the Hyderabad radio station in 1951. The initial broadcast was made capable using 1 kW medium-wave transmitter. With the first successful transmissions on the FM 100 bandwidth in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad in October 1998, the Government decided on opening transmissions to other cities where Radio Pakistan had found success. This made available the FM 101 bandwidth transmissions to Hyderabad and other cities in Sindh.[21]

A relief from the regular broadcasts in other cities, entertainment content on the Hyderabad radio gave birth to many a star whose names became an attribute to Hyderabad's richer media content. Among them were actor Shafi Mohammad, a young man who had recently finished his postgraduate degree from the University of Sindh.[22] Such fresh and young talent became a trademark to entertainment in Hyderabad.

Whilst radio was gaining popularity, bulky television screens showed the broadcast of Neil Armstrong setting foot on the moon. Pakistan Television had only had half-a-decade broadcast success from 1963 to 1969 that people in the radio entertainment business felt destined to make a mark on the television circuits. Prominent radio personalities from the Hyderabad radio station like Shafi Muhammad Shah and Mohammad Ali left the airwaves to hone their acting skills on the television.[23] Television shows and content enriched with the inclusion of Hyderabadi names however PTV never opened a television station in Hyderabad.

While the year 2005 saw new FM regular stations set up at Gawadar, Mianwali, Sargodha, Kohat, Bannu and Mithi, private radio channels began airing in and around Hyderabad. Of late, stations like Sachal FM 105 and some others have gained popularity. But the unavailability of an up-to-date news and current affairs platform renders the services of such stations of not much value to the masses but nonetheless appealing to youngsters.

As the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (abbreviated as PEMRA) gave licenses to private radio channels, so were television channels owned privately given a right to broadcast from the year 2002,[24] and Daily Kawish,[18] a prominent Sindhi newspaper published from Hyderabad opened a one-of-its-kind private Sindhi channel Kawish Television Network. Many followed in its path namely Sindh TV, Dhoom TV and Kashish TV premièring Sindhi content. www.transport.gos.pk (Official website of Transport Department, Government of Sindh)

Notable people[edit]

  • Hoshu Sheedi was the General of Talpur Mirs' Army which fought against British in the Battles of Miani and last Battle of Dubbo. Before his martyrdom in the Battle of Dubbo, he attempted to raise this famous slogan in Saraiki language

“ مرسون مرسون، سنڌ نه ڏيسون 'Marsoon Marsoon, Sindh na Ddaisun' (We'd die but wouldn't give Sindh [to others] ”

  • Syed Qutub Ali Shah (1805–1910) a famous Sufi saint of the city. His Shrine is at Tando Jahania Hyderabad, Sindh.
  • Jivatram Kripalani (1886–1982), Indian politician and Indian independence activist.
  • Mirza Kalich Beg (1853–1929) a civil servant, educationist, renowned scholar and author of about 400 books, hailed for his contributions to the Sindhi literature. Born and buried in Tando Thoro, Hyderabad.
  • K. R. Malkani (1921–2003), Indian politician. Lieutenant-Governor of Pondicherry (2002–03)
  • Allama Imdad Ali Imam Ali Kazi (1886–1968) was a scholar, philosopher, jurist, and educationist. He is considered to be a founder of the University of Sindh at its old location Karachi. Many remarkable works for Sindhi Art, literature, mysticism, education and history are attributed to him.
  • Sadhu T. L. Vaswani (1879–1966), Hindu spiritualist. Founder, Sadhu Vaswani Mission.
  • Dr.Nabi Bux Khan Baloch PhD, (1917–2011), was an educationist, liguist, researcher, author of books in multiple languages including Sindhi, Urdu, English and Persian.
  • Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo, born 1915, is an educationist, scholar, author and translator of many books.
  • Ghulam Mustafa Khan, born 1912, PhD, D.Litt, SI, was a Researcher, critic, Linguist, author, Scholar of Urdu literature & linguistics, educationist, religious & spiritual leader of Naqshbandi Mujadidiah order.
  • Choudry Mohammad Sadiq (1900–1975) was born in Batala, district Gurdaspur, in an Arain family. He was graduated from Islamia College, Lahore and obtained his law degree in 1928. He was an eminent politician and remained a Muslim Leaguer before and after independence. Settled in Sindh in 1934. Moved to Hyderabad in 1940. Founded Sindh Chamber of Agriculture in the late 1960s. A housing development in Hyderabad (Sadiq Livina) is named after him.
  • Syed Qamar Zaman Shah was born 12 September 1933, did B.A. (Hons), 1957, L.L.B. 1959. He is the nephew and son-in-law of Late Syed Miran Mohammad Shah. He remained Senator during the early 1970s.
  • Syed Miran Mohammad Shah was speaker of Sindh legislative Assembly, Minister Sindh Government, Ambassador of Pakistan in Spain.
  • Qabil Ajmeri was born27 Aguest1931, After migrating to Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan in December 1947, he became popular at mushairas, and was recognised as a "senior" poet of Urdu at the age of 21, along with other veterans of Hyderabad, Ajmeri died of tuberculosis in Hyderabad on 3 October 1962, at the age of 31.
  • Syed Weedhal Shah III was a famous personalty of Hyderabad, Sindh. He was born on January 1911 and was among the descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangasht and Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari. His family belongs to a prominent lineage of Naqvi(descendants of Imam Naqi Ali al-Hadi) settled at Uch Sharif. His ancestors came from Uch Sharif and settled in Sindh. His father Syed Dadan Shah Jahania.He was a great poet. He died on 5 July 2007.
  • Syed Weedhal Shah Imam (awal) was a prominient Sufi Saint in the Province of Sindh. He was born in 1731 AD and was among the descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangasht and Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari. He was the son of Syed Ishaq Shah. His Grandfather Syed Shah Mehmood II came in Sindh and settled in a small town Shahpur Jehanian. He was a great poet. He died in 1812 AD, Shrine at Wadi Dargah as known as Dargah Syed Dadan Shah, Hyderabad.He is his grand son.
  • Bhawani Shankar Chowdhry was born 1 January 1959, a Pakistani ICT Professional and an electronics engineer, He is the Professor and Dean Faculty of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering at the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamashoro.
  • Syed Zawar Naqvi He born 15 January 1962 at Tando Jahania Hyderabad, Syed Zawar Naqvi, After Makhdoom Syed Weedhal Imam (awal), Makhdoom Bahawal Shah Jahania, Makhdoom Syed Weedhal Shah Jahania (II), Makhdoom Syed Muhammad Ali Shah Jahania, Makhdoom Syed Dadan Shah Jahania, Makhdoom Syed Weedhal Shah Jahania (III), & the Present one is Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahania Sindh Syed Zawar Hussain Shah Jahania. He is known as Syed Zawar Naqvi. who is the Sajadanasheen Makhdoom from the family of Jahania in Sindh
  • Maula Bux Chandio key Figure of Pakistan peoples party Re-known politician. who was born in Hyderabad in a middle class family,served as a law minister of Pakistan and sitting senator as well.he regarded as the voice of people he considered as a decent and soft image person that's why most of country intellectuals likes him.he also wrote many famous books

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Sindh population surges by 81.5 pc, households by 83.9 pc". Thenews.com.pk. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May 2006 [1]. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
  3. ^ Naik, C.D. (2010). Buddhism and Dalits: Social Philosophy and Traditions. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 32. ISBN 978-81-7835-792-8. 
  4. ^ P. 151 Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World By André Wink
  5. ^ P. 164 Notes on the religious, moral, and political state of India before the Mahomedan invasion, chiefly founded on the travels of the Chinese Buddhist priest Fai Han in India, A.D. 399, and on the commentaries of Messrs. Remusat, Klaproth, Burnouf, and Landresse, Lieutenant-Colonel W.H. Sykes by Sykes, Colonel;
  6. ^ P. 505 The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians by Henry Miers Elliot, John Dowson
  7. ^ Uch Sharif (18 December 2011). "Safarnama Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht". Uchsharif.com. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  8. ^ [2][dead link]
  9. ^ "Sufis & Shaykhs [4] – World of Tasawwuf". Spiritualfoundation.net. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  10. ^ "Tomb of Bibi Jawindi, Baha'al-Halim and Ustead and the Tomb and Mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  11. ^ "Pakistan floods leave many dead". BBC News. 18 February 2003. 
  12. ^ "World Briefing – Asia: Pakistan: Floods Kill 88 And Maroon 100,000 \". The New York Times. 30 July 2003. 
  13. ^ http://www.pakmet.com.pk/cdpc/Climate/Hyderabad_Climate_Data.txt
  14. ^ "Climatological Information for Hyderabad, Pakistan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  15. ^ a b "Pakistan Backgrounder". South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved 15 April 2008. 
  16. ^ [3][dead link]
  17. ^ "Mirza Kalich Beg: Renowned scholar of Sindh". Retrieved 18 March 2008. 
  18. ^ a b "Read Daily Kawish online". Daily Kawish. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  19. ^ "Read Daily Ibrat online". Daily Ibrat. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  20. ^ "Read Daily Sindh online". Daily Sindh. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  21. ^ "Radio Pakistan: Chronicle of Progress". Radio Pakistan. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2008. 
  22. ^ "Actor Shafi Muhammad passes away". Retrieved 18 March 2008. 
  23. ^ "Pakistan's Top Film Star Muhammad Ali Dies". Pakistan Tribune. Retrieved 18 March 2008. 
  24. ^ "PEMRA Ordinance 2002". Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2008. 

References[edit]

  • Biographical Encyclopedia of Pakistan 1963–1966 edition.

External links[edit]