||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (September 2010)|
|State of Hyderabad|
|Province of the Mughal Empire 1724–1798
Princely state of the British Indian Empire 1798–1947
Hyderabad (dark green) and Berar (not a part of Hyderabad but also Nizam's Dominion) (light green) (Between 1853 and 1903)
(now in Maharashtra, India)
(now in Andhra Pradesh, India)
|Languages||Urdu, Telugu, Persian, Marathi, Kannada|
|Religion||Hinduism and Islam|
Province of the Indian Union (1948–1950)
Province of the Republic of India(1950-1956)
|-||1720–48||Qamaruddin Khan (first)|
|-||1911–48||Osman Ali Khan (last)|
|-||1724–1730||Iwaz Khan (first)|
After annexation by Indian Union 1948–1956
|Mir Laiq Ali (last)|
|Historical era||Mughal Empire (1724-1798)
Indian British Empire (1798-1947)
Independent State (1947-1948)
Indian Union (1948-1950)
Dividing between Andhra Pradesh
Merging Telanagana part of Hyderabad State with Andhra State
Mysore and Bombay States.
|-||Annexed by India||September 18, 1948|
|-||Division||November 1, 1956|
|Area||215,339 km² (83,143 sq mi)|
The Hyderābād State pronunciation (help·info) was located in the south-central region of the Indian subcontinent, and was ruled, from 1724 until 1948, by a hereditary Nizam. The capital city was Hyderabad.
The region became part of the Mughal Empire in the 1680s. When the empire began to weaken in the 18th century, a Mughal official, Asif Jah, defeated a rival Mughal governor's attempt to seize control of the empire's southern provinces, declaring himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. The Mughal emperor, under renewed attack from the Marathas, was unable to prevent it.
Nizam's Dominions in the 18th century extended from Aurangabad and Berar in the north to Tiruchirapally in the south, encompassing the entire area of 'Circars' (later annexed by French and British forces), and parts of today's Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The areas in what is now Tamil Nadu were administered by the Nawab of the Carnatic, who acknowledged the Nizam's suzerainty. However, with the death of the first Nizam and the arrival of foreign forces, the dominions gradually lost their coastal territories.
From 1798 Hyderabad was one of the princely states existing alongside British India. By a subsidiary alliance it had ceded to the British the control of its external affairs but retained control of its internal affairs.
In 1947, at the time of the partition of India and the formation of the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan, the effect of the Indian Independence Act 1947 was to give the then Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, full independence, with the option of acceding either to India or to Pakistan; however, he initially decided not to join either new nation. When India sought to deny Hyderabad the option of remaining independent, the Nizam considered acceeding to Pakistan. Foreseeing an Indian invasion, the Nizam petitioned King George VI for military assistance, but the government of Clement Attlee gave him none, whether military or diplomatic, so that he believed the British had reneged on their promises. A delegation, including Muhammad Hamidullah, professor of international law at Osmania University, was sent to lobby the United Nations, but before the scheduled debate on the matter, India had, with military force, invaded and annexed the enclave of Hyderabad State into the Indian Union. Pakistan protested in the United Nations, but to no avail. Colloquially, the invasion became known as a 'Police Action', but this is a misnomer for what was called Operation Polo, led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, in 1948, the year following Indian independence.
The Nizams patronized Islamic art, Islamic Architecture, culture and literature, which became central to Hyderabadi Muslim identity. The Nizam was known for his huge wealth and jewelry collection; he had been the richest man in the world until the end of his reign. The Nizams also developed the railway, and the introduction of electricity; developed roads, airways, irrigation and reservoirs; in fact, all major public buildings in Hyderabad City were built during his reign. He pushed education, science, and establishment of Osmania University. The Nizams drew on Sharia law to guide the administration of the state.
Early History 
The Nizam of Hyderabad was earlier the Mughal Viceroy of the Deccan. However, with the decline of the Mughals the Deccan attained independence, though the first Nizam continued to owe allegiance to the Mughal Emperor. The Deccan territories were thus the last survivors of the Mughal empire, along with the Princely state of Awadh (in North India). These territories soon came to be known as the 'Nizam's Dominions', which (in the year 1760) included areas from south of Maharashtra to the southern end of Tamil Nadu, encompassing vast territories in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The Nawab of the Carnatic, who accepted the suzerainty of the Nizam, ruled southern territories that are now part of Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh. However, Hyder Ali administered the regions in and around Mysore and did not owe any allegiance to the Nizam.
With the Mughal empire in disarray, this was a time when the French and British were competing for supremacy in the Indian sub-continent. The French exercised considerable influence in the Deccan from their stronghold of Pondicherry. In fact, the Nizam had a French regent stationed at Hyderabad in the later years of the 18th century as an important adviser, and there remains to this day a street of Hyderabad city named Troop Bazaar, which recalls where the French originally had their military barracks. The Nizam's dominions were at their greatest territorial extent at the time of the first Nizam, Nizam-ul-mulk, Asaf Jah-I. However, after his death there arose a succession struggle, with the British and French supporting competing factions. This resulted in a period of internal instability as two Nizams (Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung) ruled in rapid succession, each being assassinated by a rival faction. The combined duration of their rule was just four years. The fourth Nizam, Mir Ali Salabat Jung, came to the throne on French instigation and his rule prevailed for 12 years. This period marked the height of French influence in the Nizam's dominions. Mir Ali Salabat Jung's successor was Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, who gained the territories of Aurangabad, Bidar and Sholapur in various battles with the Marathas. Though Asaf Jah-II ruled for over 50 years, the Nizam's dominions lost considerable power and more importantly, land to both the British and the French due to infighting and debts owed to the foreign powers. He ceded the territory of Northern Circars (present day coastal Andhra Pradesh) to the French as a gift 'for perpetuity', while British, French and Hyder Ali annexed the Carnatic regions. The Nizam was criticized for failing to form an alliance with Hyder Ali of the Kingdom of Mysore, a move which could have countered the increasing influence of the British in the Deccan. In this time, with the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo, the British also replaced the French as the supreme colonial power in the Indian sub-continent. The British also fought a war with Mysore, which increased its clout in the Deccan and, by 1800, the Nizam's dominions came into a state of near-suzerainty under the British.
During the British Raj 
By 1801, the Nizam's dominion assumed the shape it is now remembered for: that of a princely state with territories in central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India, whereas 150 years earlier it had considerable coastline on the Bay of Bengal. During the Mutiny of 1857, Salar Jung chose to side with the British, thereby earning the title of 'Faithful Ally' for Hyderabad. This action causes some regret among modern patriots, because had the Nizam's dominions sided with the rebel forces, the British would have been greatly weakened. Hyderabad was as important to the South of India as Delhi was to the North. However, this did not happen and Hyderabad was one of several independent kingdoms of India to side with the British. In 1857, when the rule of the East India Company came to an end and British India came under the direct rule of the Crown, Hyderabad continued to be one of the most important of the princely states. Twenty years later, Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.
The seniormost (23-gun) salute state during the period of British India, Hyderabad was an 82,000 square mile (212,000 km²) region in the Deccan, ruled by the head of the Asif Jahi dynasty, who had the title of Nizam and on whom was bestowed the style of "His Exalted Highness" by the British. Development within the state of Hyderabad grew, due to the diligent work of Salar Jung, and the Nizams set up numerous institutions in the name of their dynasty. They founded schools, colleges, madrasas and a university that imparted education in Urdu. Inspired by the elite and prestigious Indian Civil Service the Nizam founded the Hyderabad Civil Service. The pace with which the last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, amassed wealth made him one of the world's richest men in the 1930s. Carrying a gift, called Nazrana, in accordance with one's net worth while meeting Nizam was a de facto necessity.
Industries in Hyderabad under the Nizams 
Various major industries emerged in various parts of the State of Hyderabad before its incorporation into the Union of India, especially during the first half of the twentieth century. However, the Nizams focussed industrial development on the region of Sanathnagar, housing a number of industries there with transportation facilities by both Road and Rail.
|Nizam Sugar Factory||1937|
|Allwyn Metal Works||1942|
|Karkhana Zinda Tilismat||1920|
|Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company||1930|
|Azam Jahi Mills Warangal||1934|
After Indian independence (1947–48) 
When India gained independence in 1947 and Pakistan came into existence in 1947, the British left the local rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one of the new dominions or to remain independent. Both the Nizam and many of his Razakars (nobles), being Muslims, wished Hyderabad to join Pakistan; but this was exceptionally problematical, as the state was entirely surrounded by the new Union of India. The Nizam was persuaded not to accede to Pakistan by the last British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten. Given the Nizam's determination not to join India, this left Hyderabad as an independent country.
However, although Hyderabad had a Muslim ruling class, its Hindus outnumbered its Muslims by about eight to one. The Nizam was also in a weak position, as his army numbered only 24,000 men, of whom only some 6,000 were fully trained and equipped. Refusing to accept the defiant independence of Hyderabad, the Indian Government prepared to carry out a so-called "Hyderabad Police Action" against the Nizam.
On 24 August 1948, Hyderabad formally asked the Secretary General of the new United Nations Organization for its Security Council, under Article 32 of the United Nations Charter, to consider the "grave dispute, which, unless settled in accordance with international law and justice, is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security." In Hyderabad, this appeal was widely considered foolish and sure to provoke India to take military action before the UN could intervene. However, on 4 September Mir Laiq Ali announced to the Hyderabad Assembly that a delegation was about to leave for Lake Success, headed by Moin Nawaz Jung. The Nizam also appealed to the British Labour Government and to the King for assistance, to fulfill their obligations and promises to Hyderabad by "immediate intervention", but without success. Nevertheless, Hyderabad had the vocal support of Winston Churchill and the British Conservatives.
At 4 a.m. on 13 September 1948, India's Hyderabad Campaign, code-named "Operation Polo" by the Indian Army, was commenced, with Indian troops invading Hyderabad from all points of the compass. At 5 p.m. on 17 September the Nizam surrendered. India then incorporated the state of Hyderabad into the Union of India and ended the rule of the Nizams. The annexation of Hyderabad was generally welcomed by many Hindus in the state, but Muslims emphasized the unlawfulness of the invasion. Some Muslims migrated to Pakistan, mainly to Karachi which has a sizeable Hyderabadi muhajir community.
Hyderabad became a state of India.
Districts of Hyderabad State 
Administratively, Hyderabad State was made up of sixteen districts, grouped into four divisions:
- Aurangabad Division included Aurangabad, Beed, Nanded, and Parbhani districts;
- Gulbarga Division included Bidar District, Gulbarga, Osmanabad, and Raichur District;
- Gulshanabad Division or Medak Division included Hyderabad (Atraf-i-Baldah), Mahbubnagar district, Medak district, Nalgonda district (Nalgundah), and Nizamabad districts, and
- Warangal Division included Adilabad, Karimnagar, and Warangal districts. Present Khammam district was part of warangal district.
After the incorporation of Hyderabad State into India, M. K. Vellodi was appointed as Chief Minister of the state on 26 January 1950. He was a Senior Civil servant in the Government of India. He administered the state with the help of bureaucrats from Madras state and Bombay state.
In first State Assembly elections in India, 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State. During this time there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement 'Mulki-rules'(Local jobs for locals only), which was part of Hyderabad state law since 1919.
In 1956 during the Reorganisation of the Indian States based along linguistic lines, the state of Hyderabad was split up among Andhra Pradesh, Bombay state (later divided into states of Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1960 with the original portions of Hyderabad becoming part of the state of Maharashtra) and Karnataka.
In December 1953, the States Reorganization Commission was appointed to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic lines. The commission, due to public demand, recommended disintegration of Hyderabad state and to merge Marathi speaking region, Maratwada, with Bombay state and Kannada speaking region with Mysore state. The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was not in favour of an immediate merger of Telugu speaking Telangana region of Hyderabad state with Andhra state, despite their common language. Para 378 of the SRC report said "One of the principal causes of opposition of Vishalandhra also seems to be the apprehension felt by the educationally backward people of Telangana that they may be swamped and exploited by the more advanced people of the coastal areas."
Andhra state and Telangana were merged to form Andhra Pradesh state on 1 November 1956 after providing safeguards to Telangana in the form of Gentlemen's agreement. There is ongoing movement in Telangana region to invalidate the merger.
Hyderabad city today 
Hyderabad city is in the middle of Telugu speaking Telangana region of Hyderabad state. The Hyderabadi Muslim cultural influence left over from the former princely state is very strong in Hyderabad and in the diaspora communities of Hyderabadi Muslims. Now Hyderabad is a multicultural city with people from every region of India.
Hyderabad is considered the second most important information technology (IT) city in India. The city is home to hundreds of IT Companies in its Hi-Tech City, Gachibowli and IT Park.
Telugu the regional native language is most widely spoken language in Hyderabad and Andhra Pradesh today. The Muslim population speaks Urdu, in particular, the unique Dakhani dialect, it was the official and dominant language prior to the demise of the Nizams. Pure Hindi speakers are the minority. English is also widely used by the educated classes, often as a second or third language.
The political party All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, founded by Bahadur Yar Jung, enjoys prominent support amongst Muslims. Also, there is a strong following of other parties, such as Congress,TDP (Telugu desam party) with both Hindu and Muslim support, and Telangana Rashtra Samiti party, formed with the intention of separation of the Telangana region (the part of the Nizams' state which was merged with Andhra state).
State institutions 
- Hyderabad Civil Service
- Jamia Nizamia
- Nizam College
- City College Hyderabad
- Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway
- Hyderabadi rupee
- State Bank of Hyderabad
- Nizamia observatory
- Osmania University
- Government Polytechnic College, Masab Tank
Palaces of Hyderabad State era 
- Asman Garh Palace
- Basheer Bagh Palace
- Bella Vista, Hyderabad
- Chowmahalla Palace
- Errum Manzil
- Falaknuma Palace
- Hill Fort Palace
- Jubilee Hall
- King Kothi Palace
- Malwala palace
- Purani Haveli
- Vikhar Manzil
See also 
- Hyderabadi Muslim
- Hyderabadi Urdu Local Dialect of Urdu
- Hyderabad, India for the Indian city.
- Hyderabad, Sindh another city with the same name in Pakistan.
- Nizam of Hyderabad for a list of Nizams and other information.
- Hyderabad Police Action, the military operation that resulted in the unification of Hyderabad state into India.
- List of Indian princely states
- Time dated February 22, 1937, cover story
- "Kaleidoscopic view of Deccan". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 25 August 2009.
- Lucien D. Benichou, From autocracy to integration: political developments in Hyderabad State, 1938-1948 (2000), p. 19
- Benichou (2000), p. 229
- Benichou (2000), p. 230
- Benichou (2000), p. 231
- Benichou (2000), p. 232
- "Mulki agitation in Hyderabad state". Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- "SRC submits report". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 1 October 2005. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
Further reading 
- Hyderabad State. Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. 1989.
- Benichou, Lucien D. (2000). From Autocracy to Integration: Political Developments in Hyderabad State, 1938–1948. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-1847-6.
- Iyengar, Kesava (2007). Economic Investigations in the Hyderabad State 1939-1930 1. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4067-6435-2.
- Leonard, Karen. "The Hyderabad Political System and its Participants," Journal of Asian Studies (1971) 30#3 pp. 569-582 in JSTOR
- Pernau, Margrit (2000). The Passing of Patrimonialism: Politics and Political Culture in Hyderabad, 1911–1948. Delhi: Manohar. ISBN 81-7304-362-0.
- Various (2007). Hyderabad State List of Leading Officials, Nobles and Personages. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4067-3137-8.
- Zubrzycki, John (2006). The Last Nizam: An Indian Prince in the Australian Outback. Australia: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-42321-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hyderabad State|
- Hyderabad City Information Portal
- Hyderabad: A Qur'anic Paradise in Architectural Metaphors
- From the Sundarlal Report – Muslim Genocide in 1948
- Of a massacre untold
- Manolya's legal fight
- About Razakars and Islamic ambitions
- Genealogy of the Nizams of Hyderabad
- Renaming villages by the Nizam