Hyderabad State (1948–56)
|Hyderabad State (1948 - 1956)|
|State of India|
|Southern India showing Hyderabad state in yellowish green. After the States reorganization in 1956, regions west of the red and blue lines merged with Bombay and Mysore states respectively and the remaining part (Telangana) was merged with Andhra state to form Andhra Pradesh.|
|-||Hyderabad State formed from Hyderabad Princely State||1948|
|-||Reorganized and renamed Andhra Pradesh||1956|
|States of India since 1947|
When India gained independence in 1947 and Pakistan came into existence in 1947, the British left the local rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one of the new dominions or to remain independent. Nizam of Hyderabad wished Hyderabad to join Pakistan; but this was exceptionally problematic, as the state was entirely surrounded by the new Union of India. Given the Nizam's determination not to join India, this left Hyderabad as an independent country.
At 4 a.m. on 13 September 1948, India's Hyderabad Campaign, code-named "Operation Polo" by the Indian Army, was commenced, with Indian troops invading Hyderabad from all points of the compass. At 5 p.m. on 17 September the Nizam surrendered. India then incorporated the state of Hyderabad into the Union of India and ended the rule of the Nizams. Independent State of Hyderabad became a state of Union of India.
After the Annexation into the Indian Union, Major General J. N. Chaudhuri who led Operation Polo stayed on as Military Governor till December 1949.
The state witnessed Mulkhi agitation in 1952 by the locals after a government jobs meant for the locals were given to non-locals.
First Appointed Chief Minister
After the Annexation of Hyderabad State into India, M. K. Vellodi was appointed the Chief Minister of the state on 26 January 1950. He was a Senior Civil servant in the Government of India. He administered the state with the help of bureaucrats from Madras state and Bombay state.
The Nizam was given the ceremonial position of "Raj Pramukh or "Governor".
First Elected Chief Minister
In the first State Assembly elections in India, 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State. During this time there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement 'Mulki-rules'(Local jobs for locals only), which was part of Hyderabad state law since 1919.
Districts of Hyderabad State
Administratively, Hyderabad State was made up of sixteen districts, grouped into four divisions:
- Aurangabad Division included Aurangabad, Beed, Nanded, and Parbhani districts;
- Gulbarga Division included Bidar District, Gulbarga, Osmanabad, and Raichur District;
- Gulshanabad Division or Medak Division included Atraf-i-Baldah (Hyderabad), Mahbubnagar district, Medak district, Nalgonda district (Nalgundah), and Nizamabad districts, and
- Warangal Division included Adilabad, Karimnagar, and Warangal districts (present Khammam district was part of Warangal district).
Merger with Andhra State
In 1956 during the Reorganisation of the Indian States based along linguistic lines, the Telugu-speaking region of the state of Hyderabad State was merged with Andhra State. The Marathi speaking region was merged with Bombay state and Kannada speaking region with Mysore State.
The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was not in favour of an immediate merger of Telugu speaking Telangana region of Hyderabad state with Andhra state, despite their common language. Para 378 of the SRC report said One of the principal causes of opposition of Vishalandhra also seems to be the apprehension felt by the educationally backward people of Telangana that they may be swamped and exploited by the more advanced people of the coastal areas.
Andhra state and Hyderabad State were merged to form Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956, after providing safeguards to Telangana in the form of Gentlemen's agreement. But in June 2014, Telangana re-emerged as a separate state. Hyderabad City will continue to be the capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana for 10 years.
Chief Ministers of Hyderabad State
- Major General Choudhary - Military Governor 1948-1949
- M. K. Vellodi - 1950-1953 (appointed by Government of India)
- Burgula Ramakrishna Rao - 1953-56 (elected)