|Hydnora africana flowers, Karasburg Constituency, Namibia, 2002|
Hydnora africana is an achlorophyllous plant native to southern Africa that is parasitic on the roots of members of the Euphorbiaceae family. The plant grows underground, except for a fleshy flower that emerges above ground and emits an odor of feces to attract its natural pollinators, dung beetles, and carrion beetles. The flowers act as temporary traps, retaining the beetles that enter long enough for them to pick up pollen.
- Waser, Nickoloas Merritt; Ollerton, Jeff, eds. (2006). "Table 6.1: Angiosperms with rewardless flowers". Plant-Pollinator Interactions: From Specialization to Generalization. University of Chicago Press. pp. 126–9. ISBN 978-0-226-87400-5.
- "BSA Parasitic Plant Pages- Hydnora Africana". Botanical Society of America. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
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