Hydrogen highway

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A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other hydrogen infrastructure along a road or highway which would allow hydrogen powered cars to travel. It is an element of the hydrogen infrastructure that is generally assumed to be a pre-requisite for mass utilization of hydrogen cars. For instance, William Clay Ford Jr. has stated that infrastructure is one of three factors (also including costs and manufacturability in high volumes) that hold back the marketability of fuel cell cars,[1] (some commentators, such as Amory Lovins in Natural Capitalism, have argued that such infrastructure may not be necessary). Hence, there are plans and proposals to begin developing hydrogen highways through private and public funds.

The use of hydrogen cars has been proposed as a means to reduce local air pollution and carbon emissions because hydrogen fuel cell cars emit clean exhaust. However, as long as the majority of hydrogen continues to be produced by burning fossil fuels, pollution is emitted by the hydrogen manufacturing process.[1][2]

Japan[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen highway (Japan).

At the end of 2012 there were 17 private hydrogen stations, and 19 new stations were expected to be installed by 2015.[2] In 2014, Japan got its first commercial hydrogen fueling station.[3] The Government expected to add up to 100 hydrogen stations under a budget of 460 million dollars covering 50% of the installation costs with the last ones hoped to be operational in 2015.[4][5] JX Energy plans to install 40 stations by 2015.[6] and another 60 in the period 2016-2018[7] Toho Gas and Iwatani Corp[8] plan to develop an additional 20 stations.[9] Toyota Tsusho and Air Liquide formed a joint venture to build 2 hydrogen stations planned to be ready by 2015.[10] A "task force" led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party was set up to guide the process.[11]

Europe[edit]

As of November 2014, there were 27 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation in Western Europe. "That number is expected to climb to 47 stations [in 2015], but considering that each new station costs around $1.3 million to build, the cost is pretty high for this buildout."[12]

Germany[edit]

In Germany as of September 2013 there were 15 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[13] Most but not all of these stations were operated by partners of the Clean Energy Partnership.[14] The German government had agreed to support an expansion of the stations nationwide to 50 by 2015, under a letter of intent,[15][16] through its public private partnership Now GMBH[17] program NIP (National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Innovation Programme)[18] with a subsidy of 20 Million Euros.[19][20] The H2 Mobility initiative had stated that it wants to raise that number to 100 stations from 2015 to 2017 and to 400 stations in 2023 at a cost of €350 million Euro.[21]

Italy[edit]

Italy's first hydrogen highway is the Motorway of Brennero (A22).[22] It runs from Modena to Verona.[23]

Scandinavia[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership.

The Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership (SHHP) is planned to link the three current hydrogen highways: HyNor, Hydrogen Sweden and Hydrogen Link Network.[24]

HyNor - In Norway, as of 2009, a 7 station hydrogen highway was planned from Oslo to Stavanger. [25] In 2011, Statoil announced that they wanted to close their filling stations in Stavanger, Porsgrunn, Drammen and Oslo after 2012.[26] A new company, HyOP,[27] was established to take over the ownership and operation of the stations, and did so since May 2012.[citation needed]

Hydrogen Sweden (formerly Hyfuture / SamVäte i Väst) is the development of a hydrogen highway system in the western region of Sweden.[28][29]

The hydrogen link network is a planned 15 station Nordic Transportation Network (NTN) that would serve to link Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Germany.[citation needed]

Spain[edit]

The first three Spanish fueling stations on the A-23 between Huesca and Zaragoza opened in 2010.[30]

United States[edit]

There are plans and proposals for hydrogen highways in the U.S. In November 2013, The New York Times reported that there were "10 hydrogen stations available to the public in the entire United States: one in Columbia, S.C., eight in Southern California and the one in Emeryville".[31] In 2013 the Department of Energy launched H2USA focused on advancing the hydrogen infrastructure.[32]

California[edit]

For more details on this topic, see California Hydrogen Highway.

In mid-2012, the number of Hydrogen filling stations in the state of California was 23,[33] eight of which were publicly accessible.[34] In June 2013 the California Energy Commission granted $18.7M for building hydrogen fueling stations.[35] In 2013 Governor Brown signed AB 8, a bill to fund $20 million a year for 10 years for up to 100 stations.[36] In May 2014, the California Energy Commission funded $46.6 million for 28 stations.[37]

As of October 2014, the number of publicly accessible hydrogen filling stations in California was nine.[38]

East Coast[edit]

According to The New York Times, as of November 2013, there was one hydrogen fueling station publicly accessible in the eastern U.S., located in Columbia, South Carolina.[31] However in 2010, the Hartford Courant reported that a publicly accessible hydrogen fueling station would open in Wallingford, Connecticut in 2010.[39]

Canada[edit]

For more details on this topic, see BC hydrogen highway.

In British Columbia, Canada, five fueling stations were built, one each in Whistler, at the University of British Columbia and in Burnaby, and two others that were later moved to Surrey. But aside from Whistler they are little-used. Reportedly, only three leased Ford fuel cell cars remain in Surrey, and there is a fleet of 20 hydrogen buses in Whistler. There are no official plans to build any more fuelling stations as the Hydrogen Highway project closed in 2011.[40] The hydrogen bus experiment in Whistler ended in March 2014, and the hydrogen fuelling station there is scheduled to be dismantled.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006 EFCF paper on hydrogen efficiency
  2. ^ New Japanese joint venture to focus on hydrogen infrastructure
  3. ^ Japan gets its first commercial hydrogen station for vehicles
  4. ^ Initiative to Promote a Diffusion of Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  5. ^ Hysut Japan
  6. ^ JX Energy Planning 40 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations in Japan by 2015
  7. ^ JX Nippon Oil to build 100 hydrogen stations in Japan
  8. ^ Developing hydrogen infrastructure ahead of the start of widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles in 2015
  9. ^ Iwatani 2012
  10. ^ Japan: Air Liquide signs partnership with Toyota Tsusho for hydrogen supply of fuel cell electric vehicles
  11. ^ Japanese task force supports hydrogen fuel for transportation
  12. ^ Ayre, James. "Toyota To Lose $100,000 On Every Hydrogen FCV Sold?", CleanTechnica.com, November 19, 2014
  13. ^ Leading industrial companies agree on an action plan for the construction of a hydrogen refuelling network in Germany
  14. ^ "The Clean Energy Partnership is growing: with new hydrogen filling stations, new regions and a new international automobile partner in Toyota" (PDF) (Press release). Clean Energy Partnership. 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  15. ^ The propagation of hydrogen stations
  16. ^ German Government announces support for 50 urban hydrogen refuelling stations, H2euro.org
  17. ^ Bundesverkehrsministerium und Industriepartner bauen überregionales Tankstellennetz (German)
  18. ^ NIP
  19. ^ {German} Bundesregierung und industrie errichten netz von 50 wasserstoff-tankstellen
  20. ^ 50 hydrogen refuelling stations for Germany – locations confirmed
  21. ^ H2 Mobility initiative: Leading industrial companies agree on an action plan for the construction of a hydrogen refuelling network in Germany
  22. ^ Green Corridor Project, Production and distribution of ‘green’ hydrogen along the Brenner motorway
  23. ^ Installation of the first hydrogen pilot plant at Bolzano Sud
  24. ^ Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership (SHHP)
  25. ^ "Hydrogen highway opens in Norway". HyNor. 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  26. ^ http://klassekampen.no/59433/article/item/null/hydrogenframtida-i-fare
  27. ^ HYOP
  28. ^ Hydrogen Sweden
  29. ^ Hydrogen Sweden West Coast Highway
  30. ^ "Zaragoza y Huesca, unidas por la primera autovía del hidrógeno en España" Gabinete de prensa del Gobierno de Aragón, June 23, 2010 (spanish)
  31. ^ a b Berman, Bradley. "Fuel Cells at Center Stage", New York Times, November 24, 2013, p. AU1
  32. ^ Energy Department Launches Public-Private Partnership to Deploy Hydrogen Infrastructure
  33. ^ Ingram, Antony. "RIP Hydrogen Highway? California Takes Back Grant Dollars", Green Car Reports, June 5, 2012
  34. ^ "Stations", California Fuel Cell Partnership, 2012, accessed March 14, 2013
  35. ^ Anderson, Mark. State grants $18.7M for hydrogen fueling stations, Sacramento Business Journal, June 13, 2013
  36. ^ Xiong, Ben. "Governor Brown Signs AB 8", California Fuel Cell Partnership, September 30, 2013
  37. ^ "California investing nearly $50 million in hydrogen refueling stations", California Energy Commission, May 1, 2014
  38. ^ "California's Hydrogen Transportation Initiatives", California Environmental Protection Agency's Air Resources Board, October 29, 2014
  39. ^ "SunHydro, State's First Public Hydrogen Fueling Station, to Open Friday in Wallingford". Hartford Courant. October 13, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2014. 
  40. ^ Jones, Nicola. "Whatever happened to the hydrogen highway?", Pique Publishing, February 9, 2012, accessed November 20, 2013
  41. ^ Taylor, Alison. "Diesel buses to replace hydrogen fleet in March", Pique Publishing, December 6, 2013

External links[edit]