Hydrogen ion

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Hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all ions of hydrogen and its isotopes.[1] Depending on the charge of the ion, two different classes can be distinguished: positively charged ions and negatively charged ions.

Cation (positively charged)[edit]

Main article: Hydron (chemistry)
Hydronium ion
Zundel cation

When hydrogen loses its electron, the following cations can be formed:

In addition, the ions produced by the reaction of these cations with water as well as their hydrates are called hydrogen ions:

Zundel cations and Eigen cations play an important role in proton diffusion according to the Grotthuss mechanism.

In connection with acids, "hydrogen ions" typically refers to hydrons.

Anion (negatively charged)[edit]

Main article: Hydrogen anion

Hydrogen anions are formed when additional electrons are acquired:

  • Hydride: general name referring to the negative ion of any hydrogen isotope (H)
  • Protide: 1H
  • Deuteride: 2H
  • Tritide: 3H, T

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd edition McNaught, A.D. and Wilkinson, A. Blackwell Science, 1997 [ISBN 0-86542-684-8], also online