Hydrographics or HydroGraphics, also known as immersion printing, water transfer printing, water transfer imaging, or cubic printing, is a method of applying printed designs to three-dimensional surfaces. The hydrographic process can be used on metal, plastic, glass, hard woods, and various other materials. Also commonly known as "hydro dipping" due to the fact that the parts are dipped in water.
The Water Transfer Printing process is extensively used to decorate items that range from entire all-terrain vehicles and car dashboards, to small items like bike helmets or other automotive trim. Films can be applied to all types of substrates including plastic, fiberglass, wood, ceramics, and metal. For the most part, if the item can be dipped in water and can be painted using traditional techniques then the hydrographic printing process can be used. 
In the process, the substrate piece to be printed is pre-treated and a base coat material is applied. A polyvinyl alcohol film is gravure-printed with the graphic image to be transferred, and is then floated on the surface of a vat of water.
An activator chemical is sprayed on the film to dissolve it into a liquid and activate a bonding agent. The piece is then lowered into the vat through the floating ink layer. The ink layer along with the polyvinyl alcohol backing then wraps around and adheres to the item. The adhesion is a result of the chemical components of the activator softening the base coat layer and allowing the ink to form a bond with it. One of the most common causes of a failure to achieve adhesion between the two layers is a poorly applied activator. This can be either too much activator being applied or too little.
After removing the piece from the water, a top coat is applied to protect the design. With multiple prints, hydrographics printing can achieve full 360° coverage of the part surface, including small crevices. Compared with airbrushing as an example the hydroprinting process is much quicker and far more complex and detailed designs can be applied..    
- "Water Transfer Printing FAQ's". Frequently Asked Questions. TWN Industries. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "The Hydroprinting Process". The Hydroprinting Process. Hydro Style UK. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Water Transfer Printing". Solublon Water Soluble Film. Aicello. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- "American Chopper 5: Camo Bike : Video : Discovery Channel". Turbo.discovery.com. 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- "Hydrographics". Daltek Custom Industrial Finishing. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- "Hydrographics examples". AquaPrint Design. Retrieved 2013-04-19.
- "What is Water Transfer Printing? FAQ". HG Arts. Retrieved 2013-10-12.
- "Item Suitability For Hydroprinting". Item Suitability For Hydroprinting. Hydro Style UK. Retrieved 2014-03-03.
- "Hydrographics Supplies In The UK". Hydrographics Supplies In The UK. Hydro Style UK. Retrieved 2014-03-03.
- Film patterns used in hydrographics
- Video of Hydro Dipping
- Video of the Hydrographics or Water Transfer Printing process
- Video of the Hydrographics applied to Military Gear
- Video of the Hydrographics applied to Wheel Rims
- Video of Hydro Dipping or Hydrographics
- The hydroprinting process explained
|This technology-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|