Hydroelectricity

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The 22,500 MW Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010,[1] and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years.

Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. There are now four hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam and Xiluodu Dam in China, Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.[1]

The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro plant larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.[1] It is also a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the plant can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. However, damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing people and wildlife.[1] Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO
2
) than fossil fuel powered energy plants.[2]


History

Museum Hydroelectric power plant ″Under the Town″ in Serbia, built in 1900.[3][4]

Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics.[5] The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well.[6] In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery.[7] The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U.S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power plant, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts.[8] By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power plants in the U.S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U.S. alone.[5]

At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power plants were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas. Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power plants on federal land and water. As the power plants became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control, irrigation and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) and the Bonneville Power Administration (1937) were created.[6] Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had began a series of western U.S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam.[9] The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was also involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.[10]

Hydroelectric power plants continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty.[11] Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power plant was the world's largest hydroelectric power plant in 1936; it was eclipsed by the 6809 MW Grand Coulee Dam in 1942.[12] The Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would eventually supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Paraguay and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity. The United States currently has over 2,000 hydroelectric power plants that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, which is 49% of its renewable electricity.[6]

Generating methods

Turbine row at Los Nihuiles Power Station in Mendoza, Argentina
Cross section of a conventional hydroelectric dam.
A typical turbine and generator

Conventional (dams)

Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water to the turbine.[13]

Pumped-storage

This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storage is not an energy source, and appears as a negative number in listings.[14]

Run of the river

Run of the river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment, or must be allowed to bypass the dam. In the United States, run of the river hydropower could potentially provide 60,000 MW (about 13.7% of total use in 2011 if continuously available).[15]

Tide

Main article: Tide power

A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels. Tidal power is viable in a relatively small number of locations around the world. In Great Britain, there are eight sites that could be developed, which have the potential to generate 20% of the electricity used in 2012.[16]

Underground

An underground power station makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways, such as a waterfall or mountain lake. An underground tunnel is constructed to take water from the high reservoir to the generating hall built in an underground cavern near the lowest point of the water tunnel and a horizontal tailrace taking water away to the lower outlet waterway.

Measurement of the tailrace and forebay rates at the Limestone Generating Station in Manitoba, Canada.

Sizes and capacities of hydroelectric facilities

Large facilities

Although no official definition exists for the capacity range of large hydroelectric power stations, facilities from over a few hundred megawatts to more than 10 GW are generally considered large hydroelectric facilities. Currently, only three facilities over 10 GW (10,000 MW) are in operation worldwide; Three Gorges Dam at 22.5 GW, Itaipu Dam at 14 GW, and Guri Dam at 10.2 GW. Large-scale hydroelectric power stations are more commonly seen as the largest power producing facilities in the world, with some hydroelectric facilities capable of generating more than double the installed capacities of the current largest nuclear power stations.

Rank Station Country Location Capacity (MW)
1 Three Gorges Dam  China 30°49′15″N 111°00′08″E / 30.82083°N 111.00222°E / 30.82083; 111.00222 (Three Gorges Dam) 20,300
2 Itaipu Dam  Brazil
 Paraguay
25°24′31″S 54°35′21″W / 25.40861°S 54.58917°W / -25.40861; -54.58917 (Itaipu Dam) 14,000
3 Guri Dam  Venezuela 07°45′59″N 62°59′57″W / 7.76639°N 62.99917°W / 7.76639; -62.99917 (Guri Dam) 10,200
4 Tucurui Dam  Brazil 03°49′53″S 49°38′36″W / 3.83139°S 49.64333°W / -3.83139; -49.64333 (Tucuruí Dam) 8,370
5 Grand Coulee Dam  United States 47°57′23″N 118°58′56″W / 47.95639°N 118.98222°W / 47.95639; -118.98222 (Grand Coulee Dam) 6,809
Panoramic view of the Itaipu Dam, with the spillways (closed at the time of the photo) on the left. In 1994, the American Society of Civil Engineers elected the Itaipu Dam as one of the seven modern Wonders of the World.[17]

Small

Main article: Small hydro

Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a small community or industrial plant. The definition of a small hydro project varies but a generating capacity of up to 10 megawatts (MW) is generally accepted as the upper limit of what can be termed small hydro. This may be stretched to 25 MW and 30 MW in Canada and the United States. Small-scale hydroelectricity production grew by 28% during 2008 from 2005, raising the total world small-hydro capacity to 85 GW. Over 70% of this was in China (65 GW), followed by Japan (3.5 GW), the United States (3 GW), and India (2 GW).[18]

A micro-hydro facility in Vietnam
Pico hydroelectricity in Mondulkiri, Cambodia

Small hydro plants may be connected to conventional electrical distribution networks as a source of low-cost renewable energy. Alternatively, small hydro projects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve from a network, or in areas where there is no national electrical distribution network. Since small hydro projects usually have minimal reservoirs and civil construction work, they are seen as having a relatively low environmental impact compared to large hydro. This decreased environmental impact depends strongly on the balance between stream flow and power production.

Micro

Main article: Micro hydro

Micro hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. These installations can provide power to an isolated home or small community, or are sometimes connected to electric power networks. There are many of these installations around the world, particularly in developing nations as they can provide an economical source of energy without purchase of fuel.[19] Micro hydro systems complement photovoltaic solar energy systems because in many areas, water flow, and thus available hydro power, is highest in the winter when solar energy is at a minimum.

Pico

Main article: Pico hydro

Pico hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power generation of under 5 kW. It is useful in small, remote communities that require only a small amount of electricity. For example, to power one or two fluorescent light bulbs and a TV or radio for a few homes.[20] Even smaller turbines of 200-300W may power a single home in a developing country with a drop of only 1 m (3 ft). A Pico-hydro setup is typically run-of-the-river, meaning that dams are not used, but rather pipes divert some of the flow, drop this down a gradient, and through the turbine before returning it to the stream.

Calculating available power

Main article: Hydropower

A simple formula for approximating electric power production at a hydroelectric plant is:  P = \rho hrgk , where

  • P is Power in watts,
  • \rho is the density of water (~1000 kg/m3),
  • h is height in meters,
  • r is flow rate in cubic meters per second,
  • g is acceleration due to gravity of 9.8 m/s2,
  • k is a coefficient of efficiency ranging from 0 to 1. Efficiency is often higher (that is, closer to 1) with larger and more modern turbines.

Annual electric energy production depends on the available water supply. In some installations, the water flow rate can vary by a factor of 10:1 over the course of a year.

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages

The Ffestiniog Power Station can generate 360 MW of electricity within 60 seconds of the demand arising.

Flexibility

Hydro is a flexible source of electricity since plants can be ramped up and down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands.[1] Hydro turbines have a start-up time of the order of a few minutes.[21] It takes around 60 to 90 seconds to bring a unit from cold start-up to full load; this is much shorter than for gas turbines or steam plants.[22] Power generation can also be decreased quickly when there is a surplus power generation.[23] Hence the limited capacity of hydropower units is not generally used to produce base power except for vacating the flood pool or meeting downstream needs.[24] Instead, it serves as backup for non-hydro generators.[23]

Low power costs

The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and no imports are needed. The average cost of electricity from a hydro plant larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.[1]

Hydroelectric plants have long economic lives, with some plants still in service after 50–100 years.[25] Operating labor cost is also usually low, as plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation.

Where a dam serves multiple purposes, a hydroelectric plant may be added with relatively low construction cost, providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation. It has been calculated that the sale of electricity from the Three Gorges Dam will cover the construction costs after 5 to 8 years of full generation.[26] Additionally, some data shows that in most countries large hydropower dams will be too costly and take too long to build to deliver a positive risk adjusted return, unless appropriate risk management measures are put in place.[27]

Suitability for industrial applications

While many hydroelectric projects supply public electricity networks, some are created to serve specific industrial enterprises. Dedicated hydroelectric projects are often built to provide the substantial amounts of electricity needed for aluminium electrolytic plants, for example. The Grand Coulee Dam switched to support Alcoa aluminium in Bellingham, Washington, United States for American World War II airplanes before it was allowed to provide irrigation and power to citizens (in addition to aluminium power) after the war. In Suriname, the Brokopondo Reservoir was constructed to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry. New Zealand's Manapouri Power Station was constructed to supply electricity to the aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point.

Reduced CO2 emissions

Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels, they do not directly produce carbon dioxide. While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the project, this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of equivalent fossil-fuel electricity generation. One measurement of greenhouse gas related and other externality comparison between energy sources can be found in the ExternE project by the Paul Scherrer Institut and the University of Stuttgart which was funded by the European Commission.[28] According to that study, hydroelectricity produces the least amount of greenhouse gases and externality of any energy source.[29] Coming in second place was wind, third was nuclear energy, and fourth was solar photovoltaic.[29] The low greenhouse gas impact of hydroelectricity is found especially in temperate climates. The above study was for local energy in Europe; presumably similar conditions prevail in North America and Northern Asia, which all see a regular, natural freeze/thaw cycle (with associated seasonal plant decay and regrowth). Greater greenhouse gas emission impacts are found in the tropical regions because the reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions produce a larger amount of methane than those in temperate areas.[30]

Other uses of the reservoir

Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions themselves. In some countries, aquaculture in reservoirs is common. Multi-use dams installed for irrigation support agriculture with a relatively constant water supply. Large hydro dams can control floods, which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the project.[31]

Disadvantages

Ecosystem damage and loss of land

Hydroelectric power stations that use dams would submerge large areas of land due to the requirement of a reservoir.

Large reservoirs required for the operation of hydroelectric power stations result in submersion of extensive areas upstream of the dams, destroying biologically rich and productive lowland and riverine valley forests, marshland and grasslands. The loss of land is often exacerbated by habitat fragmentation of surrounding areas caused by the reservoir.[32]

Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site. Generation of hydroelectric power changes the downstream river environment. Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks.[33] Since turbine gates are often opened intermittently, rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed.

Siltation and flow shortage

When water flows it has the ability to transport particles heavier than itself downstream. This has a negative effect on dams and subsequently their power stations, particularly those on rivers or within catchment areas with high siltation. Siltation can fill a reservoir and reduce its capacity to control floods along with causing additional horizontal pressure on the upstream portion of the dam. Eventually, some reservoirs can become full of sediment and useless or over-top during a flood and fail.[34][35]

Changes in the amount of river flow will correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam. Lower river flows will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for hydroelectricity. The result of diminished river flow can be power shortages in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. The risk of flow shortage may increase as a result of climate change.[36] One study from the Colorado River in the United States suggest that modest climate changes, such as an increase in temperature in 2 degree Celsius resulting in a 10% decline in precipitation, might reduce river run-off by up to 40%.[36] Brazil in particular is vulnerable due to its heaving reliance on hydroelectricity, as increasing temperatures, lower water flow and alterations in the rainfall regime, could reduce total energy production by 7% annually by the end of the century.[36]

Methane emissions (from reservoirs)

The Hoover Dam in the United States is a large conventional dammed-hydro facility, with an installed capacity of 2,080 MW.

Lower positive impacts are found in the tropical regions, as it has been noted that the reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions produce substantial amounts of methane. This is due to plant material in flooded areas decaying in an anaerobic environment, and forming methane, a greenhouse gas. According to the World Commission on Dams report,[37] where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity (less than 100 watts per square metre of surface area) and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken prior to impoundment of the reservoir, greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional oil-fired thermal generation plant.[38]

In boreal reservoirs of Canada and Northern Europe, however, greenhouse gas emissions are typically only 2% to 8% of any kind of conventional fossil-fuel thermal generation. A new class of underwater logging operation that targets drowned forests can mitigate the effect of forest decay.[39]

Relocation

Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned. In 2000, the World Commission on Dams estimated that dams had physically displaced 40-80 million people worldwide.[40]

Failure risks

Because large conventional dammed-hydro facilities hold back large volumes of water, a failure due to poor construction, natural disasters or sabotage can be catastrophic to downriver settlements and infrastructure. Dam failures have been some of the largest man-made disasters in history.

The Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China directly resulted in the deaths of 26,000 people, and another 145,000 from epidemics. Millions were left homeless. Also, the creation of a dam in a geologically inappropriate location may cause disasters such as 1963 disaster at Vajont Dam in Italy, where almost 2000 people died.[41]

Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities create less risk, but can form continuing hazards even after being decommissioned. For example, the small Kelly Barnes Dam failed in 1967, causing 39 deaths with the Toccoa Flood, ten years after its power plant was decommissioned.[42]

Comparison with other methods of power generation

Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and mercury in the coal. Hydroelectricity also avoids the hazards of coal mining and the indirect health effects of coal emissions. Compared to nuclear power, hydroelectricity generates no nuclear waste, has none of the dangers associated with uranium mining, nor nuclear leaks.

Compared to wind farms, hydroelectricity power plants have a more predictable load factor. If the project has a storage reservoir, it can generate power when needed. Hydroelectric plants can be easily regulated to follow variations in power demand.

World hydroelectric capacity

World renewable energy share (2008)
Trends in the top five hydroelectricity-producing countries

The ranking of hydro-electric capacity is either by actual annual energy production or by installed capacity power rating. Hydro accounted for 16 percent of global electricity consumption, and 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, which continues the rapid rate of increase experienced between 2003 and 2009.[1]

Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generated 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. Brazil, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Austria, Switzerland, and Venezuela have a majority of the internal electric energy production from hydroelectric power. Paraguay produces 100% of its electricity from hydroelectric dams, and exports 90% of its production to Brazil and to Argentina. Norway produces 98–99% of its electricity from hydroelectric sources.[43]

There are now three hydroelectric plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.[1]

A hydro-electric plant rarely operates at its full power rating over a full year; the ratio between annual average power and installed capacity rating is the capacity factor. The installed capacity is the sum of all generator nameplate power ratings.[44]

Ten of the largest hydroelectric producers as at 2009.[43][45]
Country Annual hydroelectric
production (TWh)
Installed
capacity (GW)
Capacity
factor
 % of total
capacity
 China 652.05 196.79 0.37 22.25
 Canada 369.5 88.974 0.59 61.12
 Brazil 363.8 69.080 0.56 85.56
 United States 250.6 79.511 0.42 5.74
 Russia 167.0 45.000 0.42 17.64
 Norway 140.5 27.528 0.49 98.25
 India 115.6 33.600 0.43 15.80
 Venezuela 85.96 14.622 0.67 69.20
 Japan 69.2 27.229 0.37 7.21
 Sweden 65.5 16.209 0.46 44.34

Major projects under construction

Name Maximum Capacity Country Construction started Scheduled completion Comments
Xiluodu Dam 12,600 MW China December 26, 2005 2015 Construction once stopped due to lack of environmental impact study.
Belo Monte Dam 11,181 MW Brazil March, 2011 2015 Preliminary construction underway.[46]

Construction suspended by court order Aug 2012[47]

Siang Upper HE Project 11,000 MW India April, 2009 2024 Multi-phase construction over a period of 15 years. Construction was delayed due to dispute with China.[48]
TaSang Dam 7,110 MW Burma March, 2007 2022 Controversial 228 meter tall dam with capacity to produce 35,446 GWh annually.
Xiangjiaba Dam 6,400 MW China November 26, 2006 2015
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam 6,000 MW Ethiopia 2011 2017 Located in the upper Nile Basin, drawing complaint from Egypt
Nuozhadu Dam 5,850 MW China 2006 2017
Jinping 2 Hydropower Station 4,800 MW China January 30, 2007 2014 To build this dam, 23 families and 129 local residents need to be moved. It works with Jinping 1 Hydropower Station as a group.
Diamer-Bhasha Dam 4,500 MW Pakistan October 18, 2011 2023
Jinping 1 Hydropower Station 3,600 MW China November 11, 2005 2014
Jirau Power Station 3,300 MW Brazil 2008 2013 Construction halted in March 2011 due to worker riots.[49]
Guanyinyan Dam 3,000 MW China 2008 2015 Construction of the roads and spillway started.
Lianghekou Dam[50] 3,000 MW China 2009 2015
Dagangshan Dam 2,600 MW China August 15, 2008[51] 2014
Liyuan Dam 2,400 MW China 2008[52] 2013
Tocoma Dam Bolívar State 2,160 MW Venezuela 2004 2014 This power plant would be the last development in the Low Caroni Basin, bringing the total to six power plants on the same river, including the 10,000MW Guri Dam.[53]
Ludila Dam 2,100 MW China 2007 2015 Construction halt due to lack of the environmental assessment.
Shuangjiangkou Dam 2,000 MW China December, 2007[54] 2018 The dam will be 312 m high.
Ahai Dam 2,000 MW China July 27, 2006 2015
Teles Pires Dam 1,820 MW Brazil 2011 2015
Lower Subansiri Dam 2,000 MW India 2005 2014

See also

References

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  2. ^ Renewables 2011 Global Status Report, page 25, Hydropower, REN21, published 2011, accessed 2011-11-7.
  3. ^ National Museum Uzice.
  4. ^ Hydroelectric power plants, ″Under the Town″ and ″Turica″
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  6. ^ a b c "Hydroelectric Power". Water Encyclopedia. 
  7. ^ Association for Industrial Archaeology (1987). Industrial archaeology review, Volumes 10-11. Oxford University Press. p. 187. 
  8. ^ "Hydroelectric power - energy from falling water". Clara.net. 
  9. ^ "Boulder Canyon Project Act". December 21, 1928. 
  10. ^ The Evolution of the Flood Control Act of 1936, Joseph L. Arnold, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1988
  11. ^ The Book of Knowledge. Vol. 9 (1945 ed.). p. 3220. 
  12. ^ "Hoover Dam and Lake Mead". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 
  13. ^ Hydro Electricity Explained
  14. ^ Pumped Storage, Explained
  15. ^ Run-of-the-River Hydropower Goes With the Flow
  16. ^ Energy Resources: Tidal power
  17. ^ Pope, Gregory T. (December 1995), "The seven wonders of the modern world", Popular Mechanics: 48–56 
  18. ^ Renewables Global Status Report 2006 Update, REN21, published 2006
  19. ^ "Micro Hydro in the fight against poverty". Tve.org. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
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  23. ^ a b Bent Sørensen (2004). Renewable Energy: Its Physics, Engineering, Use, Environmental Impacts, Economy, and Planning Aspects. Academic Press. pp. 556–. ISBN 978-0-12-656153-1. 
  24. ^ Geological Survey (U.S.) (1980). Geological Survey Professional Paper. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 10. 
  25. ^ Hydropower – A Way of Becoming Independent of Fossil Energy?[dead link]
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  27. ^ (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2406852), Should We Build More Large Dams? The Actual Costs of Hydropower Megaproject Development, Energy Policy, March 2014, pp. 1-14
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  40. ^ "Briefing of World Commission on Dams". Internationalrivers.org. 2008-02-29. 
  41. ^ References may be found in the list of Dam failures.
  42. ^ Toccoa Flood USGS Historical Site, retrieved 02sep2009
  43. ^ a b "Binge and purge". The Economist. 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2009-01-30. "98-99% of Norway’s electricity comes from hydroelectric plants." 
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External links