Hydroxylammonium chloride

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Hydroxylammonium chloride
Hydroxylammonium-chloride-2D.png
Ball-and-stick model of a hydroxylammonium cation (left) and a chloride anion (right)
Sample of hydroxylammonium chloride.jpg
Identifiers
CAS number 5470-11-1 YesY
ChemSpider 20344 YesY
EC number 226-798-2
ChEMBL CHEMBL542448 N
RTECS number NC3675000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula HONH2·HCl
Molar mass 69.49 g/mol
Appearance white crystalline solid
Density 1.67 g/cm3
Melting point 155 - 157 °C (311 - 315 °F) - decomp
Hazards
MSDS [1]
EU Index 612-123-00-2
EU classification Explosive (E)
Carc. Cat. 3
Harmful (Xn)
Irritant (Xi)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases R2, R21/22, R36/38, R40, R43, R48/22, R50
S-phrases (S2), S36/37, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Hydroxylammonium chloride is the hydrochloric acid salt of hydroxylamine. Hydroxylamine is a biological intermediate in the nitrification (biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite) and in the anammox (biological oxidation of nitrite and ammonium into dinitrogen gas) which are important in the nitrogen cycle in soil and in wastewater treatment.

Applications[edit]

Hydroxylammonium chloride is used in organic synthesis for preparation of oximes and hydroxamic acids from carboxylic acids, N- and O- substituted hydroxyamines, and addition reactions of carbon-carbon double bond.

During the acetyl bromide method of extracting lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, hydroxylammonium chloride can be used to remove bromine and polybromide from the solution.

In surface treatments, it is used in the preparation of anti-skinning agents, corrosion inhibitors, and cleaner additives. It is also a starting material for pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals manufacturing. In the rubber and plastics industries, it is an antioxidant, vulcanization accelerator, and radical scavenger.

It is also used as a fixative for textile dyes, auxiliary in some dyeing processes, as a metal extraction and flotation aid, as an antioxidant in fatty acids and soaps, and as a color stabilizer and emulsion additive in color films.

References[edit]