|Molar mass||154.163193 g/mol|
|Appearance||Clear, faint yellow to yellow liquid|
|Boiling point||174 °C (345 °F; 447 K)|
|5 g/100 ml (25 °C)|
|Main hazards||Causes skin irritation.
Causes serious eye irritation.
May cause respiratory irritation.
|ethanol, phenol, tyrosol|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Hydroxytyrosol is a phenylethanoid, a type of phenolic phytochemical with antioxidant properties in vitro. In nature, hydroxytyrosol is found in olive leaf and olive oil, in the form of its elenolic acid ester oleuropein and, especially after degradation, in its plain form.
Oleuropein, along with oleocanthal, are responsible for the bitter taste of extra virgin olive oil. Hydroxytyrosol itself in pure form is a colorless, odorless liquid. The olives, leaves and olive pulp contain large amounts of hydroxytyrosol (compared to olive oil), most of which can be recovered to produce hydroxytyrosol extracts. However, it was found that black olives, such as common canned variety, containing iron(II) gluconate contained very little of the original hydroxytyrosol, as iron salts are catalysts for its oxidation.
Research into potential health effects
||This article focuses too much on specific examples without clearly discussing its abstract general subject. (March 2013)|
In vitro studies
An olive oil fraction containing hydroxytyrosol can inhibit platelet aggregation and eicosanoid (thromboxane B2) formation in vitro. In basic research, hydroxytyrosol had evidence for antimicrobial and antibiotic properties.
In vivo studies
Ex vivo data provide the first evidence of possible neuroprotective effects of oral hydroxytyrosol intake. Both, ex vivo and in vitro studies identified mitochondria as one target for hydroxytyrosol effects in the brain.
- M. Baldioli, M. Servili, G. Perretti and G. F. Montedoro (1996). "Antioxidant activity of tocopherols and phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil". Journal Of The American Oil Chemists' Society 73 (11): 1589–1593. doi:10.1007/BF02523530.
- Vincenzo Marsilio, Cristina Campestre, Barbara Lanza (July 2001). "Phenolic compounds change during California-style ripe olive processing". Food Chemistry 74 (1): 55–60. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00338-1.
- Petroni, A.; Blasevich, M.; Salami, M.; Papini, N.; Montedoro, G. F.; Galli, C. (1995). "Inhibition of platelet aggregation and eicosanoid production by phenolic components of olive oil". Thrombosis Research 78 (2): 151–60. doi:10.1016/0049-3848(95)00043-7. PMID 7482432.
- Bisignano, G; Tomaino, A; Lo Cascio, R; Crisafi, G; Uccella, N; Saija, A (1999). "On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol". The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology 51 (8): 971–4. doi:10.1211/0022357991773258. PMID 10504039.
- Capasso, R; Evidente, A; Schivo, L; Orru, G; Marcialis, M. A.; Cristinzio, G (1995). "Antibacterial polyphenols from olive oil mill waste waters". The Journal of applied bacteriology 79 (4): 393–8. PMID 7592132.
- Visioli F, Galli C, Plasmati E, et al. (2000). "Olive phenol hydroxytyrosol prevents passive smoking-induced oxidative stress". Circulation 102 (18): 2169–71. doi:10.1161/01.cir.102.18.2169. PMID 11056087.
- Schaffer S, Podstawa M, Visioli F, et al. (2007). "Hydroxytyrosol-rich olive wastewater extract protects brain cells in vitro and ex vivo". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (13): 5043–5049. doi:10.1021/jf0703710.
- Schaffer S, Müller WE, Eckert GP (2010). "Cytoprotective effects of olive wastewater extract and its main constitute hydroxytyrosol in PC12 cells". Pharmacol. Res. 62 (4): 322–327. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2010.06.004. PMID 20600919.