|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||154.163193 g/mol|
|Appearance||Clear, faint yellow to yellow liquid|
|Boiling point||174 °C (345 °F; 447 K)|
|Solubility in water||5 g/100 ml (25 °C)|
|Main hazards||Causes skin irritation.
Causes serious eye irritation.
May cause respiratory irritation.
|Related alcohols||ethanol, phenol, tyrosol|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Hydroxytyrosol is a phenylethanoid, a type of phenolic phytochemical with antioxidant properties in vitro. In nature, hydroxytyrosol is found in olive leaf and olive oil, in the form of its elenolic acid ester oleuropein and, especially after degradation, in its plain form.
Oleuropein, along with oleocanthal, are responsible for the bitter taste of extra virgin olive oil. Hydroxytyrosol itself in pure form is a colorless, odorless liquid. The olives, leaves and olive pulp contain large amounts of hydroxytyrosol (compared to olive oil), most of which can be recovered to produce hydroxytyrosol extracts. However, it was found that black olives, such as common canned variety, containing iron(II) gluconate contained very little of the original hydroxytyrosol, as iron salts are catalysts for its oxidation.
Research into potential health effects
||This article focuses too much on specific examples without clearly discussing its abstract general subject. (March 2013)|
In vitro studies
An olive oil fraction containing hydroxytyrosol can inhibit platelet aggregation and eicosanoid (thromboxane B2) formation in vitro. In basic research, hydroxytyrosol had evidence for antimicrobial and antibiotic properties.
In vivo studies
Ex vivo data provide the first evidence of possible neuroprotective effects of oral hydroxytyrosol intake. Both, ex vivo and in vitro studies identified mitochondria as one target for hydroxytyrosol effects in the brain.
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- Schaffer S, Müller WE, Eckert GP (2010). "Cytoprotective effects of olive wastewater extract and its main constitute hydroxytyrosol in PC12 cells". Pharmacol. Res. 62 (4): 322–327. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2010.06.004. PMID 20600919.