Hyperactivity

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"Hyperactive" redirects here. For other uses, see Hyperactive (disambiguation).

Hyperactivity is a physical state in which a person is abnormally active. The colloquial term hyper is an abbreviation of hyperactive.

Causes[edit]

In two studies published in 2004 and 2007, researchers from Southampton University suggested that a statistically significant increase in the hyperactivity of children possibly occurs after they consumed common artificial food colours and additives from fruit drinks.[1][2] The list of compounds used in the two studies included a preservative commonly used in beverages, sodium benzoate, and six color additives used in foods: tartrazine, quinoline yellow, sunset yellow, carmoisine and allura red. On the basis of the 2007 report, The UK Food Standards Agency has revised its stance on these additives, informing parents of children that demonstrate hyperactive behaviour that removal of foods containing the six additives from their diet may have beneficial results on behaviour.[3] The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked to review the 2007 study that asserted a link between consumption of artificial food colours and the observation of hyperactive behaviour in children. EFSA invited a number of experts in behaviour, child psychiatry, allergenicity and statistical analysis to provide input to the EFSA Panel on Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food. In a press release[4] from March 2008, EFSA indicated that, in their view, the 2007 study provided only limited evidence on the few children experimented of an association between the intake of the mixture of additives and activity and attention. Due to this, they further indicated that the effects that were reported in the study were not consistent for the two age groups and the two food additive mixtures due to the limited evidence gathered, and limited patients experimented.

Other studies who think that there is a correlation between hyperactivity and diet have recommended the Feingold Diet which eliminates several synthetic colors, synthetic flavors, synthetic preservatives, and artificial sweeteners. Scientific studies have shown mixed results in double blind studies of the diet lacking the evidence it needs to prove that this diet works.[5] A 1983 publication in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association suggested that administration of the Feingold diet produced very minimal behavioural alterations in hyperactive children further suggesting that the diet has no effect on hyperactive kids.[6]

Sugar consumption[edit]

The majority of studies show no connection between sugar and hyperactivity.[7][8][9] Some people, particularly parents and teachers, believe that sugar causes hyperactivity, and that children's behavior often gets more rowdy, excited and energetic after they eat too much sugary food and drink too many sugary drinks (such as chocolates/sweets or soft drinks). One particular study found that the perception by parents regarding their children's hyperactivity depended on their belief as to whether they had been given sugar, and thus, a placebo effect was observed.[10] Regardless of this, the studies conducted present that there however, is no correlation between sugar and hyperactivity.[11]

Complicating factors[edit]

Other studies point to synthetic preservatives and artificial colouring agents aggravating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in those affected.[12][unreliable source?] Numerous studies have found a significant correlation between the ingestion of salicylates and hyperactivity in children.[13] Parental reports were more accurate indicators of the presence of additives than clinical tests revealing results not properly gathered to conclude a result.[14] [15] Two studies show academic performance increased and disciplinary problems decreased in large non-ADHD student populations when artificial ingredients were eliminated from school food programs.[16][17] Based on all the conducted studies it is not clear yet if there is a correlation between diet and hyperactivity, but the majority of studies done indicate that there may be no correlation between the two.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schab DW, Trinh NH (2004). "Do artificial food colors promote hyperactivity in children with hyperactive syndromes? A meta-analysis of double-blind placebo-controlled trials". Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP 25 (6): 423–34. doi:10.1097/00004703-200412000-00007. PMID 15613992. 
  2. ^ Donna McCann et al. (2007). "Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial". The Lancet 370 (9598): 1560–1567. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61306-3. PMID 17825405. 
  3. ^ "Agency revises advice on certain artificial colours". Food Standards. 11 September 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  4. ^ European Food Safety Authority
  5. ^ Krummel DA, Seligson FH, Guthrie HA (1996). "Hyperactivity: is candy causal?". Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition 36 (1–2): 31–47. doi:10.1080/10408399609527717. PMID 8747098. 
  6. ^ Lipton MA, Mayo JP. Diet and hyperkinesis: An update. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 83:132134, 1983.
  7. ^ "Sweet disorder a hyper myth.". The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995) (ACT: National Library of Australia). 4 February 1994. p. 1. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  8. ^ Busting the sugar-hyperactivity myth CNN
  9. ^ Cecil Adams (2008-02-15). "Does giving sweets to kids produce a "sugar rush?"". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  10. ^ citation needed
  11. ^ Hoover, Richard; Milich (1994). "Effects of sugar ingestion expectancies on mother-child interactions". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 22 (4): 501–515. doi:10.1007/bf02168088. PMID 7963081. 
  12. ^ 1997 Graduate Student Research Project conducted at the University of South Florida. Author- Richard W. Pressinger M.Ed.
  13. ^ Laura J. Stevens, Thomas Kuczek, John R. Burgess, Elizabeth Hurt, L. Eugene Arnold (April 2011). "Dietary Sensitivities and ADHD Symptoms: Thirty-five Years of Research". Clinical Pediatrics 50 (4): 279–293. doi:10.1177/0009922810384728. 
  14. ^ Sinn, Natalie. "Nutritional and dietary influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" (PDF). Google Scholar. International Life Sciences Institute. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  15. ^ "Food Additives May Affect Kids' Hyperactivity". WebMD Medical News. May 24, 2004. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  16. ^ "A different kind of school lunch". The Feingold Diet Program for ADHD. Pure Facts. October 2002. Retrieved 22 February 2014. [unreliable source?]
  17. ^ Schoenthaler, SJ; Doraz, WE; Wakefield, JA (1986). The Impact of a Low Food Additive and Sucrose Diet on Academic Performance in 803 New York City Public Schools 8 (2). Int J Biosocial Res. pp. 185–195. 

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