Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), also known as primary or peripheral/gonadal hypogonadism, is a condition which is characterized by hypogonadism due to an impaired response of the gonads to the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and in turn a lack of sex steroid production and elevated gonadotropin levels (as an attempt of compensation by the body). HH may present as either congenital or acquired, but the majority of cases are of the former nature.
- Chromosomal abnormalities (resulting in gonadal dysgenesis) - Turner's syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Swyer's syndrome, XX gonadal dysgenesis, and mosaicism.
- Defects in the enzymes involved in the gonadal biosynthesis of the sex hormones - 17α-hydroxylase deficiency, 17,20-lyase deficiency, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency, and lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
- Gonadotropin resistance (e.g., due to inactivating mutations in the gonadotropin receptors) - Leydig cell hypoplasia (or insensitivity to LH) in males, FSH insensitivity in females, and LH and FSH resistance due to mutations in the GNAS gene (termed pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A).
Acquired causes (due to damage to or dysfunction of the gonads) include gonadal torsion, vanishing/anorchia, orchitis, premature ovarian failure, ovarian resistance syndrome, trauma, surgery, autoimmunity, chemotherapy, radiation, infections (e.g., sexually-transmitted diseases), toxins (e.g., endocrine disruptors), and drugs (e.g., antiandrogens, opioids, alcohol).
- Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
- Delayed puberty and infertility
- Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and HPG axis
- Gonads (testicles and ovaries)
- GnRH and gonadotropins (FSH and LH)
- Sex hormones (androgens and estrogens)
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