Hyperkinetic disorder

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This article is about the childhood-onset psychiatric syndrome. For disorders featuring pathologically increased muscle activity, see Hyperkinesia.
Hyperkinetic disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F90
ICD-9 314.00, 314.01
OMIM 143465

Hyperkinetic disorder is a psychiatric syndrome emerging in early childhood that features an enduring pattern of severe, developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity across different settings (e.g., home and school) that significantly impair academic, social and work performance.[1]

Hyperkinetic children display disorganized, poorly controlled and excessive activity; they lack perseverance in tasks involving thought and attention, and tend to move from one activity to the next without completing any. They are frequently accident-prone, reckless and impulsive, and may thoughtlessly (rather than defiantly) break rules. While they are commonly incautious and unreserved with adults, they may be isolated and unpopular with other children. Cognitive impairment and delayed language and motor development are more common in this group than in the general population; and they may experience low self-esteem and engage in dissocial behavior as a consequence of the disorder.[2]

Diagnosis[edit]

Though the American Psychiatric Association's criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the World Health Organization's criteria for hyperkinetic disorder each list a very similar set of 18 symptoms, the differing rules governing diagnosis mean that hyperkinetic disorder features greater impairment and more impulse-control difficulties than typical ADHD, and it most resembles a severe case of ADHD combined type.[1]

Unlike ADHD, a diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder requires that the clinician directly observes the symptoms (rather than relying only on parent and teacher reports); that onset must be by age 6 not 7;[3] and that at least six inattention, three hyperactivity and one impulsivity symptom be present in two or more settings. While ADHD may exist comorbid with (in the presence of) mania or a depressive or anxiety disorder, the presence of one of these rules out a diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder.[1] Most cases of hyperkinetic disorder appear to meet the broader criteria of ADHD.[4]

Hyperkinetic disorder may exist comorbid with conduct disorder, in which case the diagnosis is hyperkinetic conduct disorder.[1]

Epidemiology[edit]

The prevalence in school age children is thought to be about 1.5%, compared with an estimated 5.3% for ADHD.[1]

Treatment[edit]

Once the patient and family have been educated about the nature, management and treatment of the disorder and a decision has been made to treat, the European ADHD Guidelines group[5] recommends medication rather than behavioral training as the first treatment approach; and the UK's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends medication as first line treatment for those with severe ADHD, and the provision of group parent-training in all cases of ADHD.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Banaschewski, Tobias; Rohde, Louis (2009). "Phenomenology". In Banaschewski, Tobias; Coghill, David; Danckaerts, Marina. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Hyperkinetic Disorder. Oxford, UK: OUP. pp. 3—18. ISBN 9780191576010. 
  2. ^ "International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) Version for 2010". World Health Organisation. 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-17. 
  3. ^ Professor Michael Fitzgerald; Dr. Mark Bellgrove; Michael Gill (30 April 2007). Handbook of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. John Wiley & Sons. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-470-03215-2. 
  4. ^ Santosh, Paramala J; Henry, Amy; Varley, Christopher K (24 January 2008). "ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder". In Peter Tyrer; Kenneth R. Silk. Cambridge Textbook of Effective Treatments in Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press. p. 782. ISBN 978-1-139-46757-5. 
  5. ^ Banaschewski T, Coghill D, Santosh P, et al. (March 2008). "[Long-acting medications for the treatment of hyperkinetic disorders - a systematic review and European treatment guideline. Part 1: overview and recommendations]". Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother (in German) 36 (2): 81–94; quiz 94–5. doi:10.1024/1422-4917.36.2.81. PMID 18622938. 
  6. ^ Coghill, David; Danckaerts, Marina (2009). "Organizing and Delivering Treatment". In Banaschewski, Tobias; Coghill, David; Danckaerts, Marina. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Hyperkinetic Disorder. Oxford, UK: OUP. pp. 91—106. ISBN 9780191576010.