Hyperproinsulinemia is a disease where insulin is not sufficiently processed before secretion and immature forms of insulin make up the majority of circulating insulin immunoreactivity in both fasting and glucose-stimulated conditions (insulin immunoreactivity refers to all molecules detectable by an insulin antibody, i.e. insulin, proinsulin, and proinsulin-like material). The term is composed of hyper - high, proinsulin - immature insulin molecule, and -emia - blood condition.
Hyperproinsulinemia is more frequent in type 2 diabetes. It has been attributed to either a direct β-cells defect or an indirect effect of cell dysregulation under sustained elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia).
Some alleles of insulin can cause hyperproinsulinemia (see table 2: monogenic forms of type 1 diabetes, INS (insulin). For a more detailed descriptions of the insulin gene variations leading to hyperproinsulinemia see NCBI's OMIM 176730
- Dhanvantari S, Shen FS, Adams T, et al. (September 2003). "Disruption of a receptor-mediated mechanism for intracellular sorting of proinsulin in familial hyperproinsulinemia". Mol. Endocrinol. 17 (9): 1856–67. doi:10.1210/me.2002-0380. PMID 12829804.