A hypersaline lake is a landlocked body of water that contains significant concentrations of sodium chloride or other salts, with saline levels surpassing that of ocean water (3.5%, i.e. 35 grams per litre or 0.29 pounds per US gallon). Specific microbial and crustacean species thrive in these high salinity environments that are otherwise inhospitable to most lifeforms. Some of these species attain dormancy when they are desiccated, and organisms of certain species have been shown to survive for over 250 million years.
The most saline water body in the world is the Don Juan Pond, located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. It is limited in its size - about 3,000 cubic meters and its volume is changing. The Don Juan Pond has a salinity level of over 44%, (i.e. 12 times saltier than the ocean water). Its high salinity prevents the Don Juan from freezing even when temperatures are below −50 °C (−58 °F). There are larger hypersaline water bodies - lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys like Lake Vanda with salinity level of over 35% (i.e. 10 times saltier than the ocean water). They are covered with ice in the winter.
The most saline lake outside of Antarctica is Lake Assal, in Djibouti, which has a salinity level of 34.8% (i.e. 10 times saltier than the ocean water). But probably the best known examples of hypersaline lakes are the Dead Sea (34.2% salinity in 2010) and the Great Salt Lake (5–27% variable salinity). The Dead Sea, dividing Israel and the West Bank from Jordan, is the world's deepest hypersaline lake. The Great Salt Lake, located in Utah, while having nearly three times the surface area of the Dead Sea, is shallower and experiences much greater fluctuations in level than the Dead Sea. Because of this, the Great Salt Lake's degree of salinity also fluctuates greatly. At its lowest recorded levels, it approaches 7.7 times the salinity of ocean water, but when its levels are high, its salinity drops to only slightly higher than the ocean.
Other hypersaline lakes can be found in western North America (besides the Great Salt Lake, Mono Lake), Africa (besides Lake Assal, the seasonal Makgadikgadi Pan), and on the French Polynesian island of Niau, there is a swampy landlocked hypersaline lagoon.
- Hammer, Ulrich Theodore (1986). Saline lake ecosystems of the world. Springer. ISBN 90-6193-535-0.
- Horikoshi, Kōki; W.D. Grant (1998). "Microbial life in hypersaline environments". Extremophiles: microbial life in extreme environments. Wiley-Liss, Inc. pp. 93–132. ISBN 0-471-02618-2.
- Vreeland, R.H.; Rosenzweig W.D. & Powers D.W. (2000). "Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal.". Nature 407 (6806): 897–900. doi:10.1038/35038060. PMID 11057666.
- G.M. Marion (1997). "A theoretical evaluation of mineral stability in Don Juan Pond, Wright Valley, Victoria Land". Antarctic Science 9: 92–9. doi:10.1017/S0954102097000114.
- "Science & Nature - Wild Africa". BBC. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- Goetz P.W. (ed.) The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (15th ed.). Vol. 3, p. 937. Chicago, 1986
- Christine Wilkerson. "Utah's Great Salt Lake and Ancient Lake Bonneville, PI39 - Utah Geological Survey". Geology.utah.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- Allred, Ashley; Baxter, Bonnie. "Microbial life in hypersaline environments". Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Kjeldsen KU, Loy A, Jakobsen TF, Thomsen TR, Wagner M, Ingvorsen K. (May 2007). "Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria from an extreme hypersaline sediment, Great Salt Lake (Utah)". FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) 60 (2): 287–98. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00288.x. PMID 17367515.
- Hogan, C. Michael (2008). "Makgadikgadi". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 2008-12-20.