Hypogeum or hypogaeum (plural hypogea) literally means "underground", from Greek hypo (under) and gaia (mother earth or goddess of earth). It usually refers to an underground temple or tomb. When Christian underground shrines, crypts and tombs that would be hypogea if the rites and burials were pagan, are called catacombs rather than hypogea, a mistaken discontinuity in sepulture practices is implied that is not borne out by the archeology and history. "Like other ambitious Romans, the bishop-saints of the third and fourth centuries were usually buried in hypogea in the cemeteries outside the walls of their cities; often it was only miracles at their tombs that caused their successors to adopt more up-to-date designs. In Dijon the saint and bishop Benignus (d. c. 274) was buried in a large sarcophagus in a chamber tomb in the Roman cemetery. By the sixth century the tomb had long since fallen into disrepair and was regarded as pagan, even by Bishop Gregory of Langres", Werner Jacobsen has observed.
Hypogeum can also simply refer to any antique building or part of building built below ground. There was a series of underground tunnels under the Colosseum where slaves and animals were kept ready to fight for the gladiatorial games. The animals and slaves would be let up through trapdoors under the sand-covered arena at any time during a fight.
Occasionally tombs of this type are referred to as built tombs.
An early example of a hypogeum is found at the Minoan Bronze Age site of Knossos on Crete. Hogan notes this underground vault was of a beehive shape and cut into the soft rock. The Ħal-Saflieni Hypogeum in Paola, Malta, is the oldest example of a prehistoric hypogeum, the earliest phase dating to 3600–3300 BC; it is a complex of underground chambers, halls and passages covering approximately 500 m2 on three levels, partly carved to imitate temple architecture and containing extensive prehistoric art. In Larnaka, Cyprus—the Lefkaritis Tomb was discovered in 1999.
Other subterranean constructions
Media related to Hypogeum at Wikimedia Commons
- James Stevens Curl (2006) A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture
- Werner Jacobsen, "Saints' Tombs in Frankish Church Architecture" Speculum 72.4 (October 1997:1107-1143) p. 1127.
- Hadjisavvas, Sophocles (2013). The Phoenician Period Necropolis of Kition, Volume II. Shelby White and Leon Levy Program for Archaeological Publications. p. Preface. "two important built tombs, namely the Ikarou Street Tomb and the Lefkaritis Tomb were the primary reasons for the authoring of The Phoenician Period Necropolis of Kition Volume II."
- C. Michael Hogan, Knossos fieldnotes, Modern Antiquarian (2007)
- "Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum, Paola". Heritage Malta. 2008. Retrieved May 2011.
- Hadjisavvas, Sophocles (2012). The Phoenician Period Necropolis of Kition, Volume I. Shelby White and Leon Levy Program for Archaeological Publications. p. 1.
- Curl, James Stevens (2006). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (PaperbackOxford University Press. p. 880. ISBN 0-19-860678-8.) (Second ed.).