Hysteroscopy

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Hysteroscopy
Intervention
Hysteroscopy1898.jpg
Hysteroscopy 1898
ICD-9-CM 68.12
MeSH D015907
OPS-301 code: 1-672

Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy with access through the cervix. It allows for the diagnosis of intrauterine pathology and serves as a method for surgical intervention (operative hysteroscopy).

Hysteroscope[edit]

A hysteroscope is an endoscope that carries optical and light channels or fibers. It is introduced in a sheath that provides an inflow and outflow channel for insufflation of the uterine cavity. In addition, an operative channel may be present to introduce scissors, graspers or biopsy instruments.[1] A hysteroscopic resectoscope is similar to a transurethral resectoscope and allows entry of an electric loop to shave off tissue, for instance to eliminate a fibroid. [1][2] A contact hysteroscope is a hysteroscope that does not use distention media.

Procedure[edit]

Hysteroscopy has been done in the hospital, surgical centers and the office. It is best done when the endometrium is relatively thin, that is after a menstruation. Diagnostic can easily be done in an office or clinic setting. Local anesthesia can be used. Simple operative hysteroscopy can also be done in an office or clinic setting. Analgesics are not always necessary.[3] A paracervical block may be used using a Lidocaine injection in the upper part of the cervix. The patient is in a lithotomy position during the procedure. Hysteroscopic intervention can also be done under general anesthesia (endotracheal or laryngeal mask) or Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC). Prophylactic antibiotics are not necessary.[3]

On December 19, 2013, Lyn Brown MP made a speech in Parliament about pain experienced during hysteroscopy as many women do not find this painless; quite the contrary, some women find it extremely painful:

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmhansrd/cm131219/debtext/131219-0003.htm#131219-0003.htm_spnew2

Cervical dilation[edit]

The diameter of the hysteroscope is generally too large to conveniently pass the cervix directly, thereby necessitating cervical dilation to be performed prior to insertion. Cervical dilation can be performed by temporarily stretching the cervix with a series of dilators of increasing diameter.[4] Misoprostol prior to hysteroscopy for cervical dilation appears to facilitate an easier and uncomplicated procedure only in premenopausal women.[5]

Insertion and inspection[edit]

The hysteroscope with its sheath is inserted transvaginally guided into the uterine cavity, the cavity insufflated, and an inspection is performed.

Insufflation media[edit]

The uterine cavity is a potential cavity and needs to be distended to allow for inspection. Thus during hysteroscopy either fluids or CO2 gas is introduced to expand the cavity. The choice is dependent on the procedure, the patient’s condition, and the physician's preference. Fluids can be used for both diagnostic and operative procedures. However, CO2 gas does not allow the clearing of blood and endometrial debris during the procedure, which could make the imaging visualization difficult. Gas embolism may also arise as a complication. Since the success of the procedure is totally depending on the quality of the high-resolution video images in front of surgeon's eyes, CO2 gas is not commonly used as the distention medium.

Electrolytic solutions include normal saline and lactated Ringer’s solution. Current recommendation is to use the electrolytic fluids in diagnostic cases, and in operative cases in which mechanical, laser, or bipolar energy is used. Since they conduct electricity, these fluids should not be used with monopolar electrosurgical devices. Non-electrolytic fluids eliminate problems with electrical conductivity, but can increase the risk of hyponatremia. These solutions include glucose, glycine, dextran (Hyskon), mannitol, sorbitol and a mannitol/sorbital mixture (Purisol). Water was once used routinely, however, problems with water intoxication and hemolysis discontinued its use by 1990. Each of these distention fluids is associated with unique physiological changes that should be considered when selecting a distention fluid. Glucose is contraindicated in patients with glucose intolerance. Sorbitol metabolizes to fructose in the liver and is contraindicated if a patient has fructose malabsorption. High-viscous Dextran also has potential complications which can be physiological and mechanical. It may crystallize on instruments and obstruct the valves and channels. Coagulation abnormalities and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been reported. Glycine metabolizes into ammonia and can cross the blood brain barrier, causing agitation, vomiting and coma. Mannitol 5% should be used instead of glycine or sorbitol when using monopolar electrosurgical devices. Mannitol 5% has a diuretic effect and can also cause hypotension and circulatory collapse. The mannitol/sorbitol mixture (Purisol) should be avoided in patients with fructose malabsorption.

When fluids are used to distend the cavity, care should be taken to record its use (inflow and outflow) to prevent fluid overload and intoxication of the patient.[6]

Interventional procedures[edit]

If abnormalities are found, an operative hysteroscope with a channel to allow specialized instruments to enter the cavity is used to perform the surgery. Typical procedures include endometrial ablation, submucosal fibroid resection, and endometrial polypectomy. Hysteroscopy has also been used to apply the Nd:YAG laser treatment to the inside of the uterus.[7]

On December 19, 2013, Lyn Brown MP made a speech in Parliament about pain experienced during hysteroscopy as many women do not find this painless; quite the contrary, some women find it extremely painful:

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmhansrd/cm131219/debtext/131219-0003.htm#131219-0003.htm_spnew2

Indications[edit]

View of a submucous fibroid by hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy is useful in a number of uterine conditions:

The use of hysteroscopy in endometrial cancer is not established as there is concern that cancer cells could be spread into the peritoneal cavity.[11]

Hysteroscopy has the benefit of allowing direct visualization of the uterus, thereby avoiding or reducing iatrogenic trauma to delicate reproductive tissue which may result in Asherman's syndrome.

Hysteroscopy allows access to the utero-tubal junction for entry into the Fallopian tube; this is useful for tubal occlusion procedures for sterilization and for falloposcopy.

Complications[edit]

A possible problem is uterine perforation when either the hysteroscope itself or one of its operative instruments breaches the wall of the uterus. This can lead to bleeding and damage to other organs. If other organs such as bowel are injured during a perforation, the resulting peritonitis can be fatal. Furthermore, cervical laceration, intrauterine infection (especially in prolonged procedures), electrical and laser injuries, and complications caused by the distention media can be encountered. The use of insufflation media can lead to serious and even fatal complications due to embolism or fluid overload with electrolyte imbalances.[1][6]

The overall complication rate for diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy is 2% with serious complications occurring in less than 1% of cases.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Di Spiezio Sardo A, Mazzon I, Bramante S, Bettocchi S, Bifulco G, Guida M, Nappi C (2008). "Hysteroscopic myomectomy: a comprehensive review of surgical techniques". Hum Reprod Update. 14 (2): 101–19. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmm041. PMID 18063608. 
  2. ^ a b Nouri K, Ott J, Huber JC, Fischer EM, Stogbauer L, Tempfer CB. (2010). "Reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty in patients with septate uterus - a retrospective cohort study and systematic review of the literature". Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 8: 52. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-8-52. PMC 2885403. PMID 20492650. 
  3. ^ a b Agostini, A.; Collette, E.; Provansal, M.; Estrade, J. -P.; Blanc, B.; Gamerre, M. (2008). "Bonne pratique et valeur diagnostique de l'hystéroscopie diagnostique et des prélèvement histologiques". Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 37 (8): S343. doi:10.1016/S0368-2315(08)74774-4.  edit
  4. ^ Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy. A Guide for Patients, Revised 2012. From the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Patient Education Committee
  5. ^ Polyzos, N. P.; Zavos, A.; Valachis, A.; Dragamestianos, C.; Blockeel, C.; Stoop, D.; Papanikolaou, E. G.; Tournaye, H.; Devroey, P.; Messinis, I. E. (2012). "Misoprostol prior to hysteroscopy in premenopausal and post-menopausal women. A systematic review and meta-analysis". Human Reproduction Update 18 (4): 393–404. doi:10.1093/humupd/dms014. PMID 22544173.  edit
  6. ^ a b Van Kruchten PM, Vermelis JM, Herold I, Van Zundert AA (2010). "Hypotonic and isotonic fluid overload as a complication of hysteroscopic procedures: two case reports". Minerva Anestesiol. 76 (5): 373–7. PMID 20395900. 
  7. ^ a b Yang J, Yin TL, Xu WM, Xia LB, Li AB, Hu J. (2006). "Reproductive outcome of septate uterus after hysteroscopic treatment with neodymium:YAG laser". Photomed Laser Surg. 24 (5): 625. doi:10.1089/pho.2006.24.625. PMID 17069494. 
  8. ^ Yu D, Wong YM, Cheong Y, Xia E, Li TC (2008). "Asherman syndrome--one century later". Fertil Steril. 89 (4): 759–79. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.02.096. PMID 18406834. 
  9. ^ Papadopoulos NP, Magos A. (2007). "First-generation endometrial ablation: roller-ball vs loop vs laser". Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 21 (6): 915–29. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2007.03.014. PMID 17459778. 
  10. ^ Siegler AM, Kemmann E (1976). "Location and removal of misplaced or embedded intrauterine devices by hysteroscopy". J Reprod Med. 16 (3): 139–44. PMID 943543. 
  11. ^ Polyzos NP, Mauri D, Tsioras S, Messini CI, Valachis A, Messinis IE (2010). "Intraperitoneal dissemination of endometrial cancer cells after hysteroscopy: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Int J Gynecol Cancer. 20 (2): 261–7. PMID 20169669. 

External links[edit]

  • [1] ACOG education pamphlet
  • [2] [Histeroscopia.es] hysteroscopy database in Spanish