Hyundai Kappa engine
2009 Hyundai i10 1.25 litre Kappa engine
|Manufacturer||Hyundai Motor Company|
|Displacement||1.0L (998 cc)
1.2L (1197 cc)
1.25L (1248 cc)
|Cylinder bore||71 mm|
|Piston stroke||84 mm (998 cc)
75,6 mm (1197 cc)
78,8 mm (1248 cc)
|Cylinder block alloy||aluminium|
|Cylinder head alloy||aluminium|
|Power output||70 PS (Kappa II 1.0L)
77 PS (Kappa 1.2L)
80 PS (Kappa 1.25L)
87 PS (Kappa II 1.25L)
|Torque output||9.7 kg-m (Kappa II 1.0L)
11.4 kg-m (Kappa 1.2L)
11.8-12.0 kg-m (Kappa 1.25L)
12.2 kg-m (Kappa II 1.25L)
|Dry weight||71.4 kg|
- 1.2 L
The 1.2 litre variant is gasoline powered, all-aluminum, and utilizes a DOHC 16-valve design, as opposed to the SOHC 12-valve design of its predecessor, the Hyundai Epsilon engine. 76 hp (57 kW; 77 PS) at 5,200 rpm and 82 lb·ft (111 N·m) of torque at 4,000 rpm.
- 1.25 L
The 1.25 litre is the European version displacing 1248 cc. It makes 79 hp (59 kW; 80 PS) at 5,200 rpm and 87 lb·ft (118 N·m) of torque at 4,000 rpm. Actual output figures may slightly vary from market to market. Fuel economy is rated at 5.0L/100 km (47 mpg) in the European combined test cycle.
Main improvement is adding VVT (Variable Valve timing) to the engine.
- 1.0 L
The 1.0 litre three-cylinder engine makes 68 hp (51 kW; 69 PS) at 6,200 rpm and 70 lb·ft (95 N·m) of torque at 3,500 rpm.
- 1.25 L
Hyundai engineers have taken the existing 1.25L 4-cylinder Kappa engine and added VTVT (Variable Timing and Valve Train), which now makes 86 hp (64 kW; 87 PS) at 6,000 rpm and 88 lb·ft (119 N·m) of torque at 4,000 rpm.
Developed at a cost of $421 million over a period of 48 months, the Kappa project was aimed at increasing fuel economy while ensuring compliance to stringent EURO-4 emission regulations.
The engine block is made from high pressure die-cast aluminum which results in considerable weight savings - the entire engine with a manual gearbox only weighs 82.4 kg. The main block features a ladder frame construction for structural stiffness while its cylinders are fitted with cast-iron liners for improved abrasion durability. Additional weight was shaved off by integrating the engine support bracket with the timing chain cover. The shape of the piston skirt was optimized to reduce its size while the compression height of the piston was also reduced, resulting in weight savings. The optimized piston skirt is also treated with molybdenum disulfide. A highly sophisticated process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is used to apply an ultra-thin layer of Chromium Nitride to the piston’s oil ring. Chromium Nitride-coated piston rings using PVD is an innovative technology borrowed from the Hyundai Tau engine introduced earlier. Friction between the oil ring and cylinder wall has been further minimized by reducing the oil ring tension. The Kappa engine is the first Hyundai engine to be fitted with an accessory drive belt which does not require a mechanical auto-tensioning adjustment device, reducing the hardware and further lowering weight and cost. Because it is designed to maintain an ideal tension setting, the belt runs quieter and with proper preventative maintenance and care, the belt will last 100,000 mi/160,000 km. For ignition, the Kappa engine uses a new, longer reach spark plug which enabled engineers to enlarge the size of the water jacket to promote more efficient engine cooling around the critically important spark plug and exhaust port area. The long reach spark plug (M12 thread) also enabled engineers to enlarge the valve diameter for increased airflow and combustion efficiency. A lightweight, heat-resistant engineering plastic was used for the intake manifold. The fuel delivery pipe assembly is a returnless type (to eliminate evaporative fuel emissions) and is made of SUS (steel use stainless) with a specially designed inner structure for the reduction of pulsation noise.
The valvetrain features a number of innovations: friction reducing roller swing arm, hydraulic lash adjusters which ensure proper clearances between the valve stem and roller swing arm, which significantly reduce valve tapping noise. The valve springs feature a beehive shape and smaller retainer. The reduced weight and spring load further help lower friction and improve fuel economy. The valvetrain is driven by a silent-type, maintenance free steel timing chain that replaces a roller-type timing chain: The optimized design greatly reduces impact forces and noise when the gear tooth and chain engage.
Unlike a conventional engine where the centerline of the cylinder bore is in perfect vertical alignment with the rotating axis of the crankshaft, the Kappa’s centerline is offset by a small distance. This offset minimizes the lateral force created by the rotating piston & rod assembly (known, and audible, as "piston slap" at its extreme). The net effect is an improvement in fuel consumption and a reduction in noise, vibration and harshness - it should also help with engine longevity since reduced lateral force will equal reduced bore wear.
Engine management is provided by two 16-bit 32Mhz microprocessors which control and monitor ignition timing, idle speed, knocking and emissions.
- "2012 Kia Picanto Brochure". Kia Motors Philippines. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
- Totally Technical: Hyundai's Kappa Engine Explained