The IκB kinase (IKK) is an enzyme complex that is involved in propagating the cellular response to inflammation.
The IκB kinase enzyme complex is part of the upstream NF-κBsignal transduction cascade. The IκBα (inhibitor of kappa B) protein inactivates the NF-κB transcription factor by masking the nuclear localization signals (NLS) of NF-κB proteins and keeping them sequestered in an inactive state in the cytoplasm. IKK specifically, phosphorylates the inhibitory IκBα protein. This phosphorylation results in the dissociation of IκBα from NF-κB. NF-κB, which is now free migrates into the nucleus and activates the expression of at least 150 genes; some of which are anti-apoptotic.
Inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK) and IKK-related kinases, IKBKE (IKKε) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), has been investigated as a therapeutic option for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. The small-molecule inhibitor of IKK-β SAR113945, developed by Sanofi-Aventis, was evaluated in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
^Mercurio F, Zhu H, Murray BW, Shevchenko A, Bennett BL, Li J, Young DB, Barbosa M, Mann M, Manning A, Rao A (1997). "IKK-1 and IKK-2: cytokine-activated IkappaB kinases essential for NF-kappaB activation". Science278 (5339): 860–6. doi:10.1126/science.278.5339.860. PMID9346484.
Zandi E, Rothwarf DM, Delhase M, Hayakawa M, Karin M (1997). "The IkappaB kinase complex (IKK) contains two kinase subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, necessary for IkappaB phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation". Cell91 (2): 243–52. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80406-7. PMID9346241.
Viatour P, Merville MP, Bours V, Chariot A (2005). "Phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins: implications in cancer and inflammation". Trends. Biochem. Sci.30 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2004.11.009. PMID15653325.