I've Been to the Mountaintop
Final 30 seconds of "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. These are the final words of his last public speech.
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The speech primarily concerns the Memphis Sanitation Strike. King calls for unity, economic actions, boycotts, and nonviolent protest, while challenging the United States to live up to its ideals. At the end of the speech, he discusses the possibility of an untimely death.
Excerpts from King's speech
Regarding the strike, King stated that
The issue is injustice. The issue is the refusal of Memphis to be fair and honest in its dealings with its public servants, who happen to be sanitation workers.
He warned the protesters not to engage in violence lest the issue of injustice be ignored because of the focus on the violence. King understood that peaceful demonstrations were the way to go and the only way to guarantee that their cry for rights would be heard and answered.
Regarding the Civil Rights Movement, King demanded that America give to its citizens what it promised in the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence and stated that he would never give up until these rights were granted, saying
Somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of the freedom of speech. Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right to protest for rights. And so just as I said, we aren't going to let dogs or water hoses turn us around. We aren't going to let any injunction turn us around. We are going on.
Regarding economic boycotts, King advocated boycotting white goods as a means of nonviolent protest. He said that the individual Negro is poor but together they are an economic powerhouse, and they should use this power to stop support for racist groups and instead empower black businesses. Although the industries might not listen to protests, they would be forced to listen to boycotts lest they be driven out of business.
Toward the end of the speech, King refers to threats against his life and uses language that seems to foreshadow his impending death, but reaffirming that he was not afraid to die:
Like anybody, I would like to live - a long life; longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.
The language is seen by some as a "prophetic" analogy. Moses is the leader of the people of Israel, whom they follow because of the prospect of life within a Promised Land. Before they reach it however, Moses is informed by God that God will not allow him to enter into the land and that he will only see it with his eyes.
"Then Moses climbed Mount Nebo ... There the Lord showed him the whole land ... Then the Lord said to him, "This is the land I promised on oath to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob ... I will let you see it with your eyes, but you will not cross over into it."—Deuteronomy 34:1-4
Shortly after, Moses dies and is buried by God, and his successor, Joshua, leads the people of Israel into the Promised Land.
References to popular culture
The last sentence of King's speech is also the opening line of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic".
- The Mountaintop (play about King's last day)
- Martin Luther King, Jr. (April 3, 1968). "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (Transcript). American Rhetoric.
- "I've Been to the Mountaintop." Memphis, Tennessee - April 3, 1968. Speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.. Info and transcript. Say It Plain. A Century of Great African American Speeches. By American RadioWorks.
- Martin Luther King, Jr: "I've Been to the Mountaintop", delivered 3 April 1968, Memphis, Tennessee at Stanford University, including transcript of audience responses.