Interstate 91

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Interstate 91 marker

Interstate 91
Route information
Length: 290.37 mi[1] (467.31 km)
Major junctions
South end: I‑95 in New Haven, CT
 
North end: A-55 at the Canadian Border at Derby Line, VT
Highway system
  • Routes in Connecticut
State highways in Vermont
Route 89 CT Route 94
I‑90 MA I‑93
I‑89 VT I‑93

Interstate 91 (abbreviated I-91) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of New England. The interstate's southern end is in New Haven, Connecticut[2] at Interstate 95; its northern end is at Derby Line, Vermont, a village in the town of Derby, at the Canadian border, where it continues past the Derby Line-Rock Island Border Crossing as Autoroute 55. I-91 is the longest of three Interstate highways whose entire route is located within the New England states, and is also the only primary (two-digit) Interstate highway in New England to intersect all five of the others that run through the region. The largest cities along its route are Springfield, Massachusetts, Hartford, Connecticut, and New Haven, Connecticut, in order from north to south.

Interstate 91 is 290 miles (470 km) long and runs nearly straight north and south: 58 miles (93 km) in Connecticut; 55 miles (89 km) in Massachusetts; and 177 miles (285 km) in Vermont. (The net displacement is 259 miles (417 km), and the net direction is 9.0 degrees clockwise from north or south, i.e., northeast by north or southwest by south.) I-91 parallels U.S. Route 5 for all of its length, and many of the exits along I-91 provide direct or indirect access to the older route.

Much of the route of Interstate 91 follows the Connecticut River, running from Hartford, Connecticut northward to St. Johnsbury, Vermont.

Route description[edit]

Lengths
  mi[3][4] km
CT 57.6 92.7
MA 54.90 88.35
VT 177.432 285.549
Total 290 470

Connecticut[edit]

Beginning of I-91 at I-95 interchange in New Haven, Connecticut
I-91 has an HOV Lane between Hartford and Windsor

Interstate 91 is the major north–south transportation corridor for the center of the state. It is the main route between the larger cities of New Haven, Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts. As such, it is almost always heavily trafficked (especially during rush hour), and maintains at least three lanes in each direction through Connecticut except for a short portion in Hartford at the interchange with Interstate 84. The three cities also serve as Connecticut's control points along its length of the Interstate. Overhead signs in each direction consistently feature one or two of the cities.

The highway begins just east of downtown New Haven at the intersection with the Connecticut Turnpike Interstate 95 and Connecticut Route 34. At the bottom of the ramp for Exit 5, U.S. Route 5 has its southern terminus and the first of its many interchanges with the freeway. Leaving New Haven, I-91 follows a northeastward trek through New Haven's suburbs of North Haven and Wallingford before entering the city of Meriden. In Meriden, about halfway between Hartford and New Haven, I-91 sees an interchange with its first spur route, Interstate 691. I-691 provides a westward link to Interstate 84 and the city of Waterbury. Leaving Meriden, I-91 travels briefly through Middletown before passing through Cromwell, Rocky Hill, and Wethersfield, eventually entering the Hartford city limits. Just south of Hartford, the highway begins to directly parallel the Connecticut River. In Hartford, I-91 interchanges with I-84 before leaving the city limits. I-91 will maintain an urban character throughout its distance to Springfield. Halfway between the two cities, Exit 40 provides direct access (via Connecticut Route 20) to the Bradley International Airport. I-91 runs through Windsor, Windsor Locks, East Windsor and Enfield (with several exits in each town) before crossing into Massachusetts at milepost 58.

I-91's final exit in Connecticut is Exit 49, which offers northbound travelers access to Longmeadow, Massachusetts.

Massachusetts[edit]

Interstate 91 travels 55 miles (89 km) through the Pioneer Valley of western Massachusetts paralleling the Connecticut River. I-91 serves as the major transportation corridor through three Massachusetts counties, linking the cities of Springfield, Northampton, and Greenfield. The three cities serve as the control cities listed on guide and mileage signs, along with Brattleboro, Vermont beginning with the first northbound conventional mileage sign (63 miles (101 km)) in Longmeadow.

In Springfield, I-91 intersects with Interstate 291 at Exit 8, a 5.44 miles (8.75 km) spur going eastbound connecting with the Massachusetts Turnpike, for travelers going either east to Boston or west to Albany, New York.

North of Springfield, I-91 briefly enters Chicopee itself where there is an interchange with the spur of Interstate 391 at Exit 12 before turning westward to cross the Connecticut River into West Springfield. I-391 provides direct access to Holyoke center, while I-91 continues on the western side of the river.

Just after the river crossing, Exit 14 is a major interchange with the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) before entering the city of Holyoke where Exit 15 is located. Just after Exit 16 U.S. 202, I-91 goes from three lanes to two lanes in each direction to the Vermont state line.

After a short exit-less stretch, I-91 enters Northampton, passing the Northampton Airport and an oxbow lake. The towns of Hadley and Amherst, home to the main campus of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, are accessible from I-91 exits in Northampton via Route 9.

Continuing north, I-91 enters Hatfield, and where it begins its straightest section — nearly 6 miles (9.7 km) without a bend in the road. Several exits provide access to U.S. Route 5 and Massachusetts Route 10 in Hatfield and Whately before entering Deerfield.

I-91 has two exits in Greenfield. At Exit 26, there is a rest area/visitor information center for Franklin County. Exit 28 in Bernardston is the last exit in Massachusetts. Beyond exit 28, I-91 continues for about 5 miles (8.0 km) more before crossing into Vermont.

The 55 miles (89 km) stretch of I-91 in Massachusetts was the last section that featured motorist-aid call boxes.[citation needed] The call boxes were important as a good part of I-91 in Massachusetts is rural, unlike many other freeways in the state.[citation needed] The call boxes were eventually removed in 2012. Massachusetts is the only state traversed by Interstate 91 where another numbered highway is co-signed onto the Interstate (in this case, U.S. 5, for a .5 miles (0.80 km) spur near the Springfield-Longmeadow town line and MA 2, for approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) in Greenfield).

Vermont[edit]

I-91 looking northbound, at Exit 1, Brattleboro

I-91 runs along the eastern border of Vermont and serves as a major transportation corridor for eastern Vermont and western New Hampshire. Many exits along Vermont's length of I-91 feature New Hampshire towns on the guide signs (for example, Exit 3, which lists Brattleboro and "Keene, NH", as the points of access). I-91 length within Vermont is 177 miles (285 km), and has two lanes in each direction the entire way from the Massachusetts border at Guilford to Derby Line at the Canadian border (nearly two-thirds of I-91's length) with 29 Vermont interchanges. The highway's rural character and long distances between exits in Vermont are in stark contrast to its south, where exits are more frequent and the road carries four lanes of traffic in each direction at some points. The major control "cities" in Vermont are Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and Newport. When re-entering northbound I-91 at Exit 28 in Derby, the "control city" sign is for Canada. Of these destinations, only Newport is a city, although the other towns are sizable. In general, the road parallels its predecessor, US 5.

I-91 enters Vermont in the town of Guilford. Just before Exit 1 in Brattleboro is the Vermont Welcome Center & Rest Area, which has a staffed Tourist Information Center, and has a self-service lottery machine for instant tickets as well as drawing games.

The first three Vermont exits (northbound) serve the town of Brattleboro. At Exit 1, northbound Route 5 provides access to stores and a small industrial area before reaching the south end of the town's center, where a bridge crosses the Connecticut River into Hinsdale, New Hampshire. Exit 2/Route 9 provides access to the western village of the town (West Brattleboro), then continues west to Marlboro and Bennington.

Northbound I-91 just north of exit 6, Rockingham, VT, looking north

Brattleboro's main retail strip is located here. Following Vermont Route 9 eastward, one can reach Keene, New Hampshire in 15 miles (24 km).

After Exit 3, I-91 heads north to pass through the towns of Dummerston, Putney, Westminster, Rockingham, Springfield, Weathersfield, Windsor, Hartland, and Hartford, home of the village of White River Junction. White River Junction, listed as a control city on mileage signs as far south as Greenfield, Massachusetts, is where I-91 and I-89 meet and provide access to many points in Vermont and New Hampshire.

North of the interchange with I-89, I-91 continues towards St. Johnsbury and passes through the towns of Norwich, Thetford, Fairlee, Bradford, Newbury (with access to the village of Wells River), and Barnet, before coming to its next major intersection. Towns in New Hampshire on the other side of the river can also be easily accessed in this stretch. At Exit 19 is the northern terminus of Interstate 93, a major interstate highway in New England, which provides a direct route south through the White Mountains and to almost all major cities in New Hampshire. Just after Exit 19, there are three exits for St. Johnsbury, including a major intersection with U.S. Route 2. Along westbound U.S. 2, the capital of Vermont, Montpelier, is eventually reached from I-91, although I-89 provides Montpelier with immediate Interstate access.

Southbound I-91 in Wheelock, Vermont

Interstate 91 continues northward, now following the Passumpsic River valley. It passes through Vermont's Northeast Kingdom region and the town of Lyndon. Two exits in Lyndon serve the village of Lyndonville and Lyndon State College. After Exit 24, I-91 departs Route 5, which it had been closely paralleling since the Massachusetts border. I-91 follows the valley of Miller Run,[5][6] and there are no convenient services until Barton at exit 25.

The interstate proceeds through Sheffield. Here it reaches the highest point on the road, just north of mile marker 150 on Sheffield Heights, 1,856 feet (566 m).

After leaving the Heights, it enters Orleans County and follows the Barton River valley north with exits in Barton, Orleans, and Derby. Exit 29 is the final U.S. exit on I-91 just after mile marker 177 at Derby Line. Beyond the exit ramp, northbound motorists enter Canadian customs at Stanstead, Quebec and continue into Canada on Autoroute 55 through the Eastern Townships.

As with Connecticut and Massachusetts, U.S. 5 closely parallels Interstate 91 for their entire lengths in Vermont. Indeed, most of the large exit signs on I-91 list U.S. 5 as one of the roads (if not the only road) that can be accessed from the exit, as seen in the exit list below. While paralleling I-91 in Vermont, U.S. 5 is never co-signed onto the freeway, but remains its own two-lane road.

Traffic and the population of each successive town tend to diminish as the road proceeds northward. Average daily traffic count for 2002 were — Brattleboro (25,600), White River Junction (28,900), St. Johnsbury (10,800), and Derby Line (2,500).[7]

History[edit]

A limited-access highway replacement for U.S. Route 5 was planned at the federal level starting in 1944. A 1953 Massachusetts plan was funded by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, along with spur Interstate 291 (but not Interstate 391). The Vermont section of I-91 was built in stages from 1958 to 1965.[8] In Massachusetts from Bernardston to Northampton, I-91 follows an abandoned right-of-way of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. To support plans for urban renewal along the "low value" waterfront, the highway crossed the Connecticut River to parallel active NYNHH railroad tracks on the Springfield side of the river, bypassing West Springfield, Massachusetts and Agawam, Massachusetts. Later, this path was perceived as cutting off the city from the river, restricting further commercial development. By 1960, a few miles in Massachusetts were completed, starting from the Connecticut and Vermont borders. Massachusetts construction was completed from 1964 to 1970.[9]

Vermont completed its last sections of I-91 in 1978.[10]

After the September 11 attacks, there has been a seldom-manned temporary border patrol checkpoint near White River Junction, VT that is about 100 miles (160 km) from the US-Canada border.[11]

Starting in the 1990s, several rest areas were downgraded in Vermont, increasing distances between facilities. In 2008, Vermont closed the Springfield-Rockingham rest areas because of suspected use by drug abusers. In 2009, the northbound rest area in Hartford was closed, creating a 90-mile (145 km) gap in on-highway facilities. At the present time, there exist 2 intermediate rest areas with facilities in each direction, in addition to a welcome center at each end of the state. Several parking areas remain open.[12]

In 2005, the Massachusetts Highway Department completed a rebuild of on- and off-ramps in Springfield, to reduce accidents caused by weaving near the tightly spaced exits.[9]

In the early 1990s after the Interstate 284 project was canceled, The Exit 44 interchange in East Windsor, Connecticut was altered as it was designed to be part of the freeway. After alters, Exit 44 connected to Route 5 for all traffic to get on and off. As a result, Exit 43 was shut down and closed in that same time frame. Exit 43 was a northbound exit/southbound entrance on State Route 510/Main Street in East Windsor, which was about 2/10ths of a mile away from exit 44.

Future enhancements[edit]

A major rebuild of the interchange with Route 9 in Northampton is in the planning phases, as of 2010.[13]

Impact on Springfield's planned riverfront development[edit]

In 2008, Springfield's urban planners contracted UMass Amherst's School of Urban Design to research I-91's effects on Springfield, after receiving complaints from Springfielders about I-91's inhibiting residents' access to Springfield's riverfront, and access to the Basketball Hall of Fame. By 2011, Amherst had produced several dozen critiques denoting that I-91's current route, height, and development beneath and around the highway are inhibiting the development of the city's greatest potential economic and recreational resources, the Connecticut River, the riverfront, and the Basketball Hall of Fame - and also limiting the interaction between these entities and the Metro Center.[14][15]

During its construction in the 1960s, Interstate 91 sliced through three Springfield neighborhoods: the North End, Metro Center, and the South End. Widely regarded as positive progress at the time, by 2011, Springfield's portion of I-91 was perceived as disrupting the urban fabric of each riverfront neighborhood, while in effect amputating everything east of the highway - the majority of the city - from the Connecticut River, the Connecticut River Walk Park, and the Basketball Hall of Fame. However, Interstate 91 was erected without tunnels, footbridges, and other paths leading to the riverfront, and thus continues to pose logistical problems for people getting to the riverfront, which in turn poses problems for businesses that would like to set up along Springfield's riverfront. The placement of I-91 has left Springfield's riverfront virtually undeveloped aside from the sliver of land surrounding the Basketball Hall of Fame, an international tourist destination, which, under different circumstances, might have more commercial and residential development.[16]

As of 2011, academic and civic studies are still underway. Preliminary findings indicate that I-91's placement negatively impacts tourism in Springfield's Metro Center—the site of many of Springfield's historic, cultural, and entertainment venues. Springfield's most popular tourist attraction, the riverfront Basketball Hall of Fame, is separated from Metro Center by a 20 feet (6.1 m) stone wall, buttressing an elevated portion of the 6-lane Interstate 91, and greatly discouraging travel between the two areas.[14][15]

History[edit]

Initially, in the 1950s and early 1960s, Interstate 91 was planned to be routed through West Springfield, Massachusetts, down the avenue now known as Riverdale Road - with numerous bridges to be built to accommodate traffic into the City of Springfield. Indeed, Riverdale Road is the original four-lane highway built to accommodate the traffic of Interstate 91. (I-91 has since widened to six lanes.) [17] In the 1960s, after Springfield learned that its longtime rival, and current business partner in the Knowledge Corridor initiative, the City of Hartford, would use its riverfront to host Interstate 91, Springfield civic leaders petitioned for the I-91 highway to be moved to the east side of the river to cut through the city, rather than employ a series of bridges, as was originally planned. At that time of initial construction, the Connecticut River was polluted and, to many, it seemed that its best days were long behind it. Construction plans were hastily drawn up and executed, and thus construction began on the I-91 highway. On its completion, although its daily usage far surpassed predictions, I-91 never catalyzed significant growth in Springfield, as was the original hope.

Academic suggestions that involve the demolition of the current highway and moving it to a less obtrusive site in the city have been proposed, including the demolition of the highway and following the original path suggested, Riverdale Road, and, least obtrusive but still requiring a great deal of work, a plan to construct numerous walkways beneath the elevated highway to better integrate the neighborhoods with the waterfront despite the highway's presence.[14][15]

In 2010, the Urban Land Institute made recommendations for how Springfield might reconnect with its riverfront, suggesting the most cost-effective but also the most development-limiting strategy (constructing pathways beneath I-91). No decision has been reached regarding those recommendations.[18]

Exit list[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

See Interstate 91 in Connecticut#Exit list.

Massachusetts[edit]

County Location[3] mi[3] km Exit[19] Destinations[19] Notes
Hampden Longmeadow 0.000 0.000 I‑91 south – Hartford Connecticut state line
Springfield 3.836 6.173 1 US 5 south – Forest Park, Longmeadow Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Southern end of US 5 concurrency
3.694 5.945 2 Route 83 south – Forest Park, East Longmeadow No southbound exit
4.142 6.666 3 US 5 north to Route 57 (Columbus Ave.) – West Springfield, Agawam US 5 leaves northbound and joins southbound
4.722 7.599 4 Route 83 south (Main St.) – East Longmeadow Southbound exit only
4.568 7.351 5 Broad Street Northbound exit only
5.253 8.454 6 Springfield Center (northbound)
Union Street (southbound)
Old Exit 5 merged with Exit 6
5.989 9.638 7 Hall of Fame Avenue – Downtown Springfield Southbound exit only
6.295 10.131 8 I‑291 / US 20 east to I‑90 / Mass Pike east No I-90 signage southbound; I-291 exits 0A-B
6.677 10.746 9 US 20 west / Route 20A east – West Springfield, Westfield No southbound exit
No southbound entrance from US 20A
7.172 11.542 10 Main Street – Chicopee, North Springfield Northbound exit and entrance only
7.481 12.040 11 US 20 west (Birnie Ave.) – West Springfield Southbound exit and entrance only
Chicopee 8.289 13.340 12 I‑391 north – Chicopee, Holyoke I-391 exits 0A-B
Chicopee–West Springfield line 8.643 13.910 Connecticut River
West Springfield 9.177 14.769 13A US 5 north (Riverdale St.)
9.184 14.780 13B US 5 south – West Springfield
11.547 18.583 14 I‑90 / Mass Pike – Boston, Albany NY I-90 exit 4
Holyoke 12.396 19.949 15 Lower Westfield Road – Ingleside
14.218 22.882 16 US 202 – Holyoke, South Hadley, Westfield
15.188 24.443 17 Route 141 – Holyoke, Easthampton Signed as Exit 17A (east) and Exit 17B (west) northbound
Hampshire Northampton 22.816 36.719 18 US 5 – Northampton, Easthampton
24.760 39.847 19 Route 9 – Northampton, Amherst Northbound exit and southbound entrance
26.016 41.869 20 US 5 / Route 9 / Route 10 – Northampton, Hadley Southbound exit and northbound entrance
27.277 43.898 21 US 5 / Route 10 – Hatfield, Whately
Hatfield 29.938 48.181 22 US 5 / Route 10 – North Hatfield, Whately Northbound exit and southbound entrance
Franklin Whately 32.309 51.996 23 US 5 / Route 10 – Whately, North Hatfield Southbound exit and northbound entrance
34.709 55.859 24 US 5 / Route 10 – Deerfield, Whately No northbound entrance
Deerfield 35.891 57.761 25 Route 116 – Deerfield, Conway Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Greenfield 43.011 69.219 26 Route 2 west / Route 2A east – Greenfield Center, North Adams Southern end of Route 2 concurrency
45.752 73.631 27 Route 2 east – Boston Northern end of Route 2 concurrency; left exit southbound
Bernardston 50.360 81.047 28 Route 10 – Bernardston, Northfield Signed as Exit 28A (north) and Exit 28B (south) northbound
54.90 88.35 I‑91 north – Brattleboro Vermont state line
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Vermont[edit]

County Location mi[4] km Exit Destinations Notes
Windham Guilford 0.000 0.000 I‑91 south – Greenfield Massachusetts state line
Brattleboro 7.480 12.038 1 US 5 – Brattleboro Also serves Vernon and Hinsdale, NH
9.095 14.637 2 VT 9 west – Brattleboro, Bennington Also serves Marlboro College and Wilmington
11.550 18.588 3 US 5 / VT 9 east – Brattleboro, Keene N.H. Also serves World Learning SIT Graduate Institute
Dummerston 17.952 28.891 4 US 5 – Putney
Westminster 28.610 46.043 5 To US 5 / VT 123 / VT 121 – Westminster, Bellows Falls, Walpole N.H.
Rockingham 35.200 56.649 6 US 5 / VT 103 – Rockingham, Rutland, Bellows Falls Also serves Chester and Ludlow
Windsor Springfield 41.690 67.094 7 US 5 / VT 11 / VT 106 – Springfield Also serves Charlestown, NH and the Fort at Number 4
Weathersfield 51.370 82.672 8 VT 131 / US 5 / VT 12 – Ascutney, Windsor Also serves Ludlow and Claremont, NH
Hartland 60.450 97.285 9 US 5 / VT 12 – Hartland, Windsor
Hartford 69.810 112.348 10 I‑89 – Lebanon Municipal Airport, New Hampshire, Barre, Montpelier Signed as Exits 10S (south) and 10N (north)
70.200 112.976 11 US 5 – White River Junction
72.010 115.889 12 To US 5 – Wilder, White River Junction
Norwich 74.830 120.427 13 US 5 / VT 10A – Norwich, Hanover NH Also serves Montshire Museum of Science
Orange Thetford 84.210 135.523 14 VT 113 to US 5 – Thetford Also serves Chelsea and Lyme, NH
Fairlee 91.540 147.319 15 US 5 – Fairlee, Orford NH Also serves Lake Morey and Lake Fairlee
Bradford 97.630 157.120 16 VT 25 to US 5 – Bradford, Barre Also serves Newbury and Piermont
Town of Newbury 110.340 177.575 17 US 302 to US 5 – Wells River, Woodsville NH Also serves South Ryegate and Groton
Caledonia Barnet 120.450 193.845 18 To US 5 – Barnet, Peacham Also serves West Barnet, Monroe NH, McIndoe Falls, and East Ryegate
Waterford 128.250 206.398 19 I‑93 south – Littleton NH
St. Johnsbury 128.890 207.428 20 US 5 – St. Johnsbury, Passumpsic
130.600 210.180 21 US 2 – St. Johnsbury, Montpelier Also serves Danville and Hardwick
132.550 213.319 22 To US 5 – St. Johnsbury
Lyndon 137.110 220.657 23 US 5 to VT 114 – Lyndonville, East Burke Also serves Lyndon State College
140.178 225.595 24 VT 122 to US 5 / VT 114 – Sheffield, Burke, Lyndonville Also serves Caledonia County Airport
Orleans Barton 155.950 250.977 25 VT 16 to US 5 – Barton, Glover Also serves Hardwick and Crystal Lake
161.410 259.764 26 US 5 / VT 58 – Orleans, Irasburg Also serves Lake Willoughby and Jay
Derby 170.060 273.685 27 VT 191 to US 5 / VT 105 – Newport Also serves Lake Memphremagog
172.400 277.451 28 US 5 / VT 105 – Newport, Derby Center Also serves Seymour Lake and Lake Memphremagog
177.269 285.287 29 To US 5 – Derby Line
177.432 285.549 A-55 north – Stanstead I-91 ends, continuation into Quebec
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

References[edit]

  1. ^ Federal Highway Administration (October 31, 2002). "FHWA Route Log and Finder List: Table 1". Retrieved March 28, 2007. 
  2. ^ Google (June 8, 2009). "Interstate 91" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved June 8, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c MassDOT Planning Division. "Massachusetts Route Log Application". Massachusetts Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 22, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Traffic Research Unit (May 2013). "2012 (Route Log) AADTs for State Highways" (PDF). Policy, Planning and Intermodal Development Division, Vermont Agency of Transportation. Retrieved March 8, 2015. 
  5. ^ Van Diver, Bradford B. (1987). Roadside Geology. Mountain Press Publishing Company. 
  6. ^ Miller run feeds southeast into the Passumpsic River
  7. ^ Interstate I-91 retrieved June 2, 2008
  8. ^ AA Roads Interstate Guide: Interstate 91, http://www.interstate-guide.com/i-091.html
  9. ^ a b "Interstate 91-Massachusetts". Bostonroads.com. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Vermont History Timeline". www.HistoricVermont.org. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  11. ^ "The American Civil Liberties Union of Vermont [ACLU VT]". Acluvt.org. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Drugs, sex force rest stop closure". Associated Press. Retrieved May 10, 2009. 
  13. ^ "Northampton - I-91 Exit 19 Full Interchange Project". Mhd.state.ma.us. May 8, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=larp_grad_research&sei-redir=1#search="umass+interstate+91+north+end"
  15. ^ a b c http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=larp_honors&sei-redir=1#search="umass+interstate+91+north+end"
  16. ^ The Republican Editorials. "Editorial: Tapping potential of Springfield's riverfront". masslive.com. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Connecticut I-91". Kurumi.com. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  18. ^ "City of Springfield, Mass.: Riverfront". Springfieldcityhall.com. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b Massachusetts Department of Transportation. "Exit Numbers and Names: Route I-91 (Longmeadow to Bernardston)". Retrieved August 22, 2014. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Bing