I. Michael Ross
Isaac Michael Ross is a Navy Professor and Director of the Control and Optimization Laboratories in Monterey, CA. In 2007, he founded the company, Elissar Global that specializes in hardware and software solutions to optimal control problems. He has published papers in pseudospectral optimal control theory, energy-sink theory, the optimization and deflection of near-Earth asteroids and comets, robotics, attitude dynamics and control, real-time optimal control and a textbook on optimal control. Ross' π lemma, Ross' time constant, the Ross–Fahroo lemma, and the Ross–Fahroo pseudospectral method are all named after him.
Although Ross has made contributions to energy-sink theory, attitude dynamics and control and planetary defense, he is best known for work on pseudospectral optimal control. In 2001, Ross and Fahroo announced the covector mapping principle, first, as a general result in pseudospectral optimal control, and later as a result in optimal control. This principle was based on their result showing that dualization and discretization are not necessarily commutative operations (known as the Ross–Fahroo lemma) and that certain steps must be taken to promote commutation. When discretization is commutative with dualization, then, under appropriate conditions, Pontryagin's minimum principle emerges as a consequence of the convergence of the discretization. Together with F. Fahroo, W. Kang and Q. Gong, Ross proved a series of results on the convergence of pseudospectral discretizations of optimal control problems. Ross and his coworkers showed that the Legendre and Chebyshev pseudospectral discretizations converge to an optimal solution of a problem under the mild condition of boundedness of variations.
In 2001, Ross created DIDO, a software package for solving optimal control problems. Powered by pseudospectral methods, Ross created a user-friendly set of objects that required no knowledge of his theory to run DIDO. This was used in work on pseudospectral methods for solving optimal control problems. DIDO is used for solving optimal control problems in aerospace applications  and robotics. Ross' constructs have been licensed to other software products, and have been used by NASA to solve flight-critical problems on the International Space Station.
In 2006, NASA used DIDO to implement zero propellant maneuvering of the International Space Station. In 2007, SIAM News printed a page 1 article announcing the use of Ross' theory. This led other researchers to explore the mathematics of pseudospectral optimal control theory. DIDO is also used to maneuver the Space Station and operate various ground and flight equipment to incorporate autonomy and performance efficiency for nonlinear control systems.
Awards and distinctions
In 2010, Ross was elected a Fellow of the American Astronautical Society for "his pioneering contributions to the theory, software and flight demonstration of pseudospectral optimal control." He also received (jointly with Fariba Fahroo), the AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award for "fundamentally changing the landscape of flight mechanics". His research has made headlines in SIAM News, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, IEEE Spectrum, and Space Daily.
- Ross' π lemma
- Caratheodory-π solution
- Ross–Fahroo pseudospectral methods
- Ross–Fahroo lemma
- Covector mapping principle
- Bellman pseudospectral method
- Flat pseudospectral methods
- DIDO (optimal control)
- I. M. Ross and F. Fahroo, A Pseudospectral Transformation of the Covectors of Optimal Control Systems, Proceedings of the First IFAC Symposium on System Structure and Control, Prague, Czech Republic, 29–31 August 2001.
- I. M. Ross and F. Fahroo, Legendre Pseudospectral Approximations of Optimal Control Problems, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, Vol. 295, Springer-Verlag, 2003.
- I. M. Ross and F. Fahroo, Pseudospectral Knotting Methods for Solving Optimal Control Problems, Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 27, No. 3, May–June 2004.
- I. M. Ross and F. Fahroo, Discrete Verification of Necessary Conditions for Switched Nonlinear Optimal Control Systems, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Invited Paper, June 2004, Boston, MA.
- I. M. Ross and F. Fahroo, Pseudospectral Methods for the Optimal Motion Planning of Differentially Flat Systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol.49, No.8, pp. 1410–1413, August 2004.
- I. M. Ross, "Formulation of Stability Conditions for Systems Containing Driven Rotors", Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar.–Apr. 1996, pp. 305–308.
- I. M. Ross, "Nutational Stability and Core Energy of a Quasi-rigid Gyrostat", Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 16, No.4, Jul.–Aug. 1993, pp. 641–647.
- I. M. Ross, S. Y. Park, and S. E. Porter, "Gravitational Effects of Earth in Optimizing Delta-V for Deflecting Earth-Crossing Asteroids", Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2001, pp. 759–764.
- S. Y. Park and I. M. Ross, "Two-Body Optimization for Deflecting Earth-Crossing Asteroids", Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 22, No.3, May–June 1999, pp.415–420.
- M. A. Hurni, P. Sekhavat, and I. M. Ross, “An Info-Centric Trajectory Planner for Unmanned Ground Vehicles,” Dynamics of Information Systems: Theory and Applications, Springer Optimization and its Applications, 2010, pp. 213–232.
- Q. Gong, L. R. Lewis, and I. M. Ross, "Pseudospectral Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles", Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 1039–1045, 2009.
- A. Fleming, P. Sekhavat, and I. M. Ross, "Minimum-Time Reorientation of a Rigid Body", Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 160–170, 2010.
- I. M. Ross and F. Fahroo, "Issues in the Real-Time Computation of Optimal Control", Mathematical and Computer Modelling, An International Journal, Vol. 43, Issues 9–10, May 2006, pp. 1172–1188.
- I. M. Ross, P. Sekhavat, A. Fleming, and Q. Gong, "Optimal Feedback Control: Foundations, Examples and Experimental Results for a New Approach", Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 307-321, 2008.
- I. M. Ross, A Primer on Pontryagin’s Principle in Optimal Control, Collegiate Publishers, San Francisco, CA, November 2009.
- B. S. Mordukhovich, Variational Analysis and Generalized Differentiation, I: Basic Theory, Vol. 330 of Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Sciences] Series, Springer, Berlin, 2005.
- W. Kang, "Rate of Convergence for the Legendre Pseudospectral Optimal Control of Feedback Linearizable Systems", Journal of Control Theory and Application, Vol.8, No.4, 2010. pp.391-405.
- Jr-S Li, J. Ruths, T-Y Yu, H. Arthanari and G. Wagner, "Optimal Pulse Design in Quantum Control: A Unified Computational Method", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol.108, No.5, Feb 2011, pp.1879-1884.
- N. Bedrossian, M. Karpenko, and S. Bhatt, "Overclock My Satellite: Sophisticated Algorithms Boost Satellite Performance on the Cheap", IEEE Spectrum, November 2012.
- R. E. Stevens and W. Wiesel, "Large Time Scale Optimal Control of an Electrodynamic Tether Satellite", Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.1716-1727, 2008.
- P. Williams, "Application of Pseudospectral Methods for Receding Horizon Control," Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol.27, No.2, pp.310-314, 2004.
- W. Kang, I. M. Ross, Q. Gong, Pseudospectral optimal control and its convergence theorems, Analysis and Design of Nonlinear Control Systems, Springer, pp. 109–124, 2008.
- Q. Gong, W. Kang, N. Bedrossian, F. Fahroo, P. Sekhavat and K. Bollino, Pseudospectral Optimal Control for Military and Industrial Applications, 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, New Orleans, LA, pp. 4128–4142, Dec. 2007.
- A. M. Hawkins, Constrained Trajectory Optimization of a Soft Lunar Landing From a Parking Orbit, S.M. Thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005. http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/32431
- J. R. Rea, A Legendre Pseudospectral Method for Rapid Optimization of Launch Vehicle Trajectories, S.M. Thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001. http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8608
- W. Kang and N. Bedrossian, "Pseudospectral Optimal Control Theory Makes Debut Flight", SIAM News, Vol. 40, Page 1, 2007.
- "International Space Station Zero-Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) Demonstration (ZPM) - 07.29.14". NASA.
- I. M. Ross and M. Karpenko, "A Review of Pseudospectral Optimal Control: From Theory to Flight," Annual Reviews in Control, Vol. 36, pp. 182–197, 2012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1367578812000375
- N. S. Bedrossian, S. Bhatt, W. Kang, and I. M. Ross, Zero-Propellant Maneuver Guidance, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, October 2009 (Feature Article), pp 53–73.
- TRACE Spacecraft's New Slewing Procedure, Space Daily, December 28, 2010