IAI Westwind

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Jet Commander/Westwind
Air Sweden IAI 1124.jpg
Time Air Sweden IAI 1124 Westwind
Role Business jet
Manufacturer Israel Aircraft Industries
First flight 27 January 1963
Introduction 1965
Status Active service
Primary user Pel-Air
Produced 1965-1987
Number built 442
Developed from Aero Commander 500
Variants IAI Astra
Gulfstream G100

The Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) Westwind is a business jet that became a cornerstone of the Israeli aircraft manufacturing industry and remained in production for 20 years. Usually configured for seven passengers, it can carry as many as 10, or be quickly reconfigured as a fast air freight aircraft.

Design and development[edit]

The Westwind was originally designed in the United States by Aero Commander as a development of its twin-propeller namesake aircraft, first flying on January 27, 1963 as the Aero Commander 1121 Jet Commander.[1] It was of broadly conventional business jet arrangement, with two engines mounted in nacelles carried on the rear fuselage. However the wings were mounted halfway up the fuselage instead of the typical low-wing arrangement of aircraft in this class. After successful testing, the aircraft was put into series production with deliveries to customers beginning in early 1965.[2]

Operational history[edit]

Shortly thereafter, Aero Commander was acquired by North American Rockwell. The Jet Commander created a problem, since Rockwell already had an executive jet of its own design, the Sabreliner, and could not keep both in production because of anti-trust laws. It was therefore decided to sell off the rights to the Jet Commander, which were purchased by IAI in 1968.[2]

Jet Commander production amounted to 150 aircraft in the United States and Israel before IAI undertook a series of modifications to create the 1123 Westwind. These included stretching the fuselage and increased maximum takeoff, maximum landing, and maximum zero-fuel weights, with the wing modified to incorporate double-slotted flaps and drooped leading edges and tip tanks. The trimmable horizontal stabiliser was also modified to have increased span and more travel.[3] Not long after the aircraft went into production, the original turbojet engines were replaced by more fuel-efficient Garrett TFE731 turbofans[2] There were also numerous airframe modifications, such as drooped leading edges on the wings, a dorsal fin, revised engine pylons and nacelles, and further increases in maximum takeoff, maximum landing, and maximum zero-fuel weights. With improvements to a number of onboard systems incorporated as well, these changes resulted in the 1124 Westwind[3] delivered from 1976.[2]

In 1976, in the wake of the terrorist takeover of the Savoy hotel in Tel Aviv, the Israeli Air Force decided to use the Westwind as the basis for a maritime patrol aircraft, which became known as the IAI Sea Scan.

In 1980, deliveries of the Model 1124A commenced; modifications included a new wing centre-section and the addition of winglets to the tips. The revamped aircraft was called the Westwind II, replacing the original design in production. IAI built its last Westwind in 1987, after a total of 442 Jet Commanders and Westwinds had been built, switching production to the Astra.[2]

Variants[edit]

Aero Commander[edit]

1121 Jet Commander
Original production version, powered by two General Electric CJ610-1 engines developing 2,850 lbf (12,700 N) each; or modified with two CJ610-5 engines developing 2,950 lbf (13,100 N) each. A total of 120 were built including two prototypes.[3]
1121A
Slightly modified version with CJ610-1 engines; 11 built.[3]
1121B Commodore
Version manufactured with CJ610-5 engines; 19 built.[3]
1122
Improved version developed but not put into production; two aircraft built and subsequently converted to 1123 Westwinds.[3]

IAI[edit]

This modified Westwind was used by Australian Customs; seen here at Perth Airport (early 1990s).
Westwind II
1123 Westwind
Improved version of the 1121. The cabin was stretched by 0.51m (1 ft 8in) and the aircraft was fitted with more powerful CJ610-9 engines developing 3,100 lbf (14,000 N) each and a Microturbo Saphir III auxiliary power unit (APU).[3] 36 built[2]
1124 Westwind
Greatly improved version powered by two Garrett TFE731-3-1G turbofan engines developing 3,700 lbf (16,000 N) each, APU deleted.[3]
1124 Westwind I
Name given to 1124 after introduction of Westwind II.[2]
1124N Sea Scan
Maritime surveillance aircraft.[2]
1124A Westwind II
Refined version of the 1124 built from 1980 onwards.[2]

Operators[edit]

Aero Commander 1121[edit]

 United States

Aero Commander 1121[edit]

 Israel
 United States
  • Cherry Air
  • Dodson International Parts Inc.

Aero Commander 1121A[edit]

 United States
  • Dodson International Parts Inc.

Aero Commander 1121B[edit]

 United States

Civil operators[edit]

 Australia

Inflight ER

 New Zealand
 Canada
 Germany
 Guatemala
 Honduras
  • Honduran Aviation Department

Military operators[edit]

 Chile
 Ecuador
 Honduras
 Israel
´ Mexico
 Panama
 Uganda

Specifications (1124A Westwind II)[edit]

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982-83[4]

General characteristics

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 868 km/h (469 knots, 539 mph) at 8,840 m (29,000 ft)
  • Cruise speed: 723 km/h (390 knots, 449 mph) econ cruise, at 11,890–12,500 m (39,000–41,000 ft)
  • Stall speed: 184 km/h (99 knots, 114 mph) CAS, flaps down, engines idling
  • Range: 4,430 km (2,392 nmi, 2,770 mi) with maximum payload
  • Service ceiling: 13,720 m (45,000 ft) (max certificated ceiling)
  • Rate of climb: 25.4 m/s (5,000 ft/min)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Scott A. Thompson, Flight Check!: The Story Of Faa Flight Inspection (Government Printing Office, 1990) p108; "Jet Commander Flies", by Gerald J. Schlaeger, Flying magazine (April 1963)p30
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Frawley 1997, p. 123.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "FAA Type Certificate Number A2SW." FAA. Retrieved: 4 January 2008.
  4. ^ Taylor 1982, pp. 124–126.
Bibliography

External links[edit]