IBM 1400 series
The IBM 1400 series were second generation (transistor) mid-range business decimal computers that IBM marketed in the early 1960s. 1400-series machines stored information in magnetic cores as variable length character strings terminated by a special flag. Arithmetic was performed digit-by-digit. Input and output support included punched card, magnetic tape and high speed line printers. Disk storage was also available.
Many members of the series could be used as independent systems, as extensions to IBM punched card equipment, or as auxiliary equipment to other computer systems. Some, however, were intended for specific applications or were economical only as independent systems.
The 1401 was the first member of the IBM 1400 series. It was the first computer to deploy over 10000 units. The IBM 1410 was a similar design, but with a larger address space. The IBM 1460 was logically but not physically identical to a fully optioned 1401 with 16,000 characters of memory, and twice as fast. The 1240 was a banking system, equivalent to the 1440 system with MICR support. The IBM 7010 was logically but not physically identical to a 1410, and twice as fast.
Members of the 1400 series included:
- IBM 1240 - 1963 "banking system".
- IBM 1401 - 1959
- IBM 1410 - 1960
- IBM 1420 - 1962 "high-speed bank transit system".
- IBM 1440 - 1962
- IBM 1450 - 1968 "Bank Data Processing System for small banks".
- IBM 1460 - 1963
- IBM 7010 - 1962
Peripherals used with 1400 series machines included:
- Card reader/punches: IBM 1402, IBM 1442
- Printers: IBM 1403, IBM 1443
- 7 track tape drives: IBM 729, IBM 7330
- Disk drives: IBM 1301, IBM 1311
- Check processing IBM 1210
- Paper tape input/output
IBM provided several models compatible (or nearly so) with the 1401.
- 1460 was twice as fast, and many special features of 1401 were standard.
- 1440 was a popular lower-cost alternative, although not fully compatible with the 1401.
- 1240, 1420, 1450 were systems specially designed for banking.
- 1410 was a much faster system in the same spirit as 1401, but with significant differences, such as larger memory (up to 100,000 characters), more index registers (fifteen), and additional instructions. A remarkable feature in the pre-microprogramming era was a "compatibility mode" switch that allowed it to run 1401 programs without change.
- 7010 was a faster and exactly compatible version of 1410.
- The IBM System/360 Model 30 could be ordered with a 1401 compatibility microprogram feature. Several 1400 series peripherals were adapted for use with System/360.
Honeywell's Honeywell 200 provided approximate 1401 compatibility through a combination of architectural similarity and software support.
The 1400s were officially withdrawn in the early 1970s, however some 1400-series peripherals were still marketed with third generation systems.
- IBM Archives: Pre-360 IBM Mainframe Family tree & chronology.
- IBM (April 1969). Catalog of Programs for IBM 1240-1401-1420-1440-1450 and 1460 (PDF). C20-1601-9.
- IBM (October 1967). IBM 1401 and 1460 Bibliography (PDF). A24-1495-4. A source for 1401, 1460 components.
- IBM (n.d.). IBM 1410/7010 Bibliography (PDF). A22-6826-4. A source for 1410/7010 components.
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- Many IBM 1400 series manuals are online (pdf files) at http://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/1410/.