||It has been suggested that ICAR 36 be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2013.|
|ICAR Comercial (sic)|
|Primary user||Romania (LARES Airlines)|
The ICAR Comercial (sic) was a 1930s Romanian single-engine airliner aircraft for six passengers. It was the first civil transport aircraft built in Romania.
Development and usage
The Comercial was designed in 1934 in the German BFW works, according to an agreement with the Romanian factory ICAR (Īntreprinderea de construcţii aeronautice româneşti) in Bucharest, and on its order. The aircraft was originally designated BFW (or Messerschmitt) M.36, as a high-wing monoplane for six passengers, of metal construction. First it was planned to use IAR-produced 450 hp (336 kW) Gnome & Rhône 7K radial engine, but eventually the aircraft was fitted with a 380 hp (283 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Serval Mk. I radial engine.
Only one aircraft (YR-ACS), designated the Comercial, was built. Later, it was modified with a cabin rearranged for five passengers and two luggage compartments. Also, the engine was replaced with a 300 hp (224 kW) Lorraine-Dietrich Mizar 47. The aircraft was used on domestic routes of the Romanian state airline LARES (Liniile aeriene române exploatate cu statul), in 1936-1940. A tri-motor development was planned, but not realized.
There is a possibility that two different aircraft existed under ICAR Comercial designation. According to some sources, Comercial was a licence-built Messerschmitt M.18b. It would carry markings CV-RAL then, and the aircraft YR-ACS would possibly be the second Comercial, ordered in 1940.
High-wing cantilever monoplane of mixed construction, with closed cab, single engine, and a fixed landing gear. A fuselage of a steel frame, covered with plywood. Straight trapezoid wings, single-spar, plywood covered. Crew of two in a cab forward of the wing. The cab was equipped with a radio and could be fitted with twin controls. Next and slightly below in a fuselage, under the wing, there was a cabin for 6 passengers, with wide rectangular windows and access doors at the rear. There were also two baggage compartments.
Armstrong Siddeley Serval Mark I 340 hp radial engine in front, under NACA cowling. Three-blade propeller. Conventional fixed landing gear, with a tailwheel. Main gear wheels had teardrop spats, and struts joined the main gear to the wings.
- Crew: 2
- Capacity: 6
- Length: 9.8 m ()
- Wingspan: 15.4 m ()
- Height: 2.8 m ()
- Wing area: m² (ft²)
- Empty weight: 1320 kg ()
- Loaded weight: 2250 kg ()
- Useful load: 930 kg ()
- Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Serval I air-cooled 10-cylinder radial, 340 hp ()
- Maximum speed: 235 km/h
- Cruise speed: 220 km/h
- Stall speed: <89 km/h ()
- Range: 700 km ()
- Service ceiling: 4,500 m ()
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Ion Gudju, Gheorghe Iacobescu, Ovidiu Ionescu: Romanian aeronautical constructions 1905-1974
- Bernád, Dénes: Rumania's Aircraft Production. The First Twenty-Five Years at Aviatia magazine website
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