IPA Extensions

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This article is about more general Unicode encodings. For specific disordered speech Extensions to IPA, see Extensions to the IPA.
IPA Extensions
Range U+0250..U+02AF
(96 code points)
Plane BMP
Scripts Latin
Major alphabets IPA
Assigned 96 code points
Unused 0 reserved code points
Unicode version history
1.0.0 89 (+89)
3.0 94 (+5)
4.0 96 (+2)
Note: [1][2]

IPA Extensions is a block (0250–02AF) of the Unicode standard that contains full size letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Both modern and historical characters are included, as well as former and proposed IPA signs and non-IPA phonetic letters. Additional characters employed for phonetics, like the palatalization sign, are encoded in the blocks Phonetic Extensions (1D00–1D7F) and Phonetic Extensions Supplement (1D80–1DBF). Diacritics are found in the Spacing Modifier Letters (02B0–02FF) and Combining Diacritical Marks (0300–036F) blocks.

With IPA's ability to use Unicode for the presentation of phonetic symbols, ASCII-based systems such as X-SAMPA or Kirshenbaum are being supplanted. Within the Unicode blocks there are also a few former IPA characters no longer in international use by linguists.

The IPA Extensions block has been present in Unicode since version 1.0, and was unchanged through the unification with ISO 10646. The block was filled out with extensions for representing disordered speech in version 3.0, and Sinology phonetic symbols in version 4.0.[2]

Character table[edit]

Code Glyph HTML Unicode name IPA phonetic description / Status IPA No.
U+0250
ɐ
ɐ Latin Small Letter Turned A Near-open central vowel 324
U+0251
ɑ
ɑ Latin Small Letter Alpha Open back unrounded vowel 305
U+0252
ɒ
ɒ Latin Small Letter Turned Alpha Open back rounded vowel 313
U+0253
ɓ
ɓ Latin Small Letter B with Hook Voiced bilabial implosive 160
U+0254
ɔ
ɔ Latin Small Letter Open O Open-mid back rounded vowel 306
U+0255
ɕ
ɕ Latin Small Letter C with Curl Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative 182
U+0256
ɖ
ɖ Latin Small Letter D with Tail Voiced retroflex plosive 106
U+0257
ɗ
ɗ Latin Small Letter D with Hook Voiced alveolar implosive 162
U+0258
ɘ
ɘ Latin Small Letter Reversed E Close-mid central unrounded vowel 397
U+0259
ə
ə Latin Small Letter Schwa Mid central vowel 322
U+025A
ɚ
ɚ Latin Small Letter Schwa with Hook Rhotacized Mid central vowel 327
U+025B
ɛ
ɛ Latin Small Letter Open E Open-mid front unrounded vowel 303
U+025C
ɜ
ɜ Latin Small Letter Reversed Open E Open-mid central unrounded vowel 326
U+025D
ɝ
ɝ Latin Small Letter Reversed Open E with Hook Rhotacized Open-mid central unrounded vowel
U+025E
ɞ
ɞ Latin Small Letter Closed Reversed Open E Open-mid central rounded vowel 395
U+025F
ɟ
ɟ Latin Small Letter Dotless J with Stroke Voiced palatal plosive 108
U+0260
ɠ
ɠ Latin Small Letter G with Hook Voiced velar implosive 166
U+0261
ɡ
ɡ Latin Small Letter Script G Voiced velar plosive 110
U+0262
ɢ
ɢ Latin Letter Small Capital G Voiced uvular plosive 112
U+0263
ɣ
ɣ Latin Small Letter Gamma Voiced velar fricative 141
U+0264
ɤ
ɤ Latin Small Letter Rams Horn Close-mid back unrounded vowel 315
U+0265
ɥ
ɥ Latin Small Letter Turned H Labial-palatal approximant 171
U+0266
ɦ
ɦ Latin Small Letter H with Hook Voiced glottal fricative 147
U+0267
ɧ
ɧ Latin Small Letter Heng with Hook Swedish sj-sound. Similar to: Voiceless
postalveolar fricative
, Voiceless velar fricative
175
U+0268
ɨ
ɨ Latin Small Letter I with Stroke Close central unrounded vowel 317
U+0269
ɩ
ɩ Latin Small Letter Iota pre-1989 form of "ɪ" (obsolete) 399
U+026A
ɪ
ɪ Latin Letter Small Capital I Near-close near-front unrounded vowel 319
U+026B
ɫ
ɫ Latin Small Letter L with Middle Tilde Velar/pharyngeal Alveolar lateral approximant 209
U+026C
ɬ
ɬ Latin Small Letter L with Belt Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative 148
U+026D
ɭ
ɭ Latin Small Letter L with Retroflex Hook Retroflex lateral approximant 156
U+026E
ɮ
ɮ Latin Small Letter Lezh Voiced alveolar lateral fricative 149
U+026F
ɯ
ɯ Latin Small Letter Turned M Close back unrounded vowel 316
U+0270
ɰ
ɰ Latin Small Letter Turned M with Long Leg Velar approximant 154
U+0271
ɱ
ɱ Latin Small Letter M with Hook Labiodental nasal 115
U+0272
ɲ
ɲ Latin Small Letter N with Left Hook Palatal nasal 118
U+0273
ɳ
ɳ Latin Small Letter N with Retroflex Hook Retroflex nasal 117
U+0274
ɴ
ɴ Latin Letter Small Capital N Uvular nasal 120
U+0275
ɵ
ɵ Latin Small Letter Barred O Close-mid central rounded vowel 323
U+0276
ɶ
ɶ Latin Letter Small Capital OE Open front rounded vowel 312
U+0277
ɷ
ɷ Latin Small Letter Closed Omega pre-1989 form of "ʊ" (obsolete) 398
U+0278
ɸ
ɸ Latin Small Letter Phi Voiceless bilabial fricative 126
U+0279
ɹ
ɹ Latin Small Letter Turned R Alveolar approximant 151
U+027A
ɺ
ɺ Latin Small Letter Turned R with Long Leg Alveolar lateral flap 181
U+027B
ɻ
ɻ Latin Small Letter Turned R with Hook Retroflex approximant 152
U+027C
ɼ
ɼ Latin Small Letter R with Long Leg Alveolar trill 206
U+027D
ɽ
ɽ Latin Small Letter R with Tail Retroflex flap 125
U+027E
ɾ
ɾ Latin Small Letter R with Fishhook Alveolar tap 124
U+027F
ɿ
ɿ Latin Small Letter Reversed R with Fishhook Syllabic voiced alveolar fricative (Sinologist usage)
U+0280
ʀ
ʀ Latin Letter Small Capital R Uvular trill 123
U+0281
ʁ
ʁ Latin Letter Small Capital Inverted R Voiced uvular fricative 143
U+0282
ʂ
ʂ Latin Small Letter S with Hook Voiceless retroflex fricative 136
U+0283
ʃ
ʃ Latin Small Letter Esh Voiceless postalveolar fricative 134
U+0284
ʄ
ʄ Latin Small Letter Dotless J with Stroke and Hook Voiced palatal implosive 164
U+0285
ʅ
ʅ Latin Small Letter Squat Reversed Esh ? (Sinologist usage)
U+0286
ʆ
ʆ Latin Small Letter Esh with Curl Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative (obsolete) 204
U+0287
ʇ
ʇ Latin Small Letter Turned T Dental click (obsolete) 201
U+0288
ʈ
ʈ Latin Small Letter T with Retroflex Hook Voiceless retroflex plosive 105
U+0289
ʉ
ʉ Latin Small Letter U Bar Close central rounded vowel 318
U+028A
ʊ
ʊ Latin Small Letter Upsilon Near-close near-back vowel 321
U+028B
ʋ
ʋ Latin Small Letter V with Hook Labiodental approximant 150
U+028C
ʌ
ʌ Latin Small Letter Turned V Open-mid back unrounded vowel 314
U+028D
ʍ
ʍ Latin Small Letter Turned W Voiceless labiovelar approximant 169
U+028E
ʎ
ʎ Latin Small Letter Turned Y Palatal lateral approximant 157
U+028F
ʏ
ʏ Latin Letter Small Capital Y Near-close near-front rounded vowel 320
U+0290
ʐ
ʐ Latin Small Letter Z with Retroflex Hook Voiced retroflex fricative 137
U+0291
ʑ
ʑ Latin Small Letter Z with Curl Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative 183
U+0292
ʒ
ʒ Latin Small Letter Ezh Voiced postalveolar fricative 135
U+0293
ʓ
ʓ Latin Small Letter Ezh with Curl Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative (obsolete) 205
U+0294
ʔ
ʔ Latin Letter Glottal Stop Glottal stop 113
U+0295
ʕ
ʕ Latin Letter Pharyngeal Voiced Fricative Voiced pharyngeal fricative 145
U+0296
ʖ
ʖ Latin Letter Inverted Glottal Stop Alveolar lateral click (obsolete) 203
U+0297
ʗ
ʗ Latin Letter Stretched C Postalveolar click (obsolete) 202
U+0298
ʘ
ʘ Latin Letter Bilabial Click Bilabial click 176
U+0299
ʙ
ʙ Latin Letter Small Capital B Bilabial trill 121
U+029A
ʚ
ʚ Latin Small Letter Closed Open E A mistake for [œ] 396
U+029B
ʛ
ʛ Latin Letter Small Capital G with Hook Voiced uvular implosive 168
U+029C
ʜ
ʜ Latin Letter Small Capital H Voiceless epiglottal fricative 172
U+029D
ʝ
ʝ Latin Small Letter J with Crossed Tail Voiced palatal fricative 139
U+029E
ʞ
ʞ Latin Small Letter Turned K Velar click (obsolete) 291
U+029F
ʟ
ʟ Latin Letter Small Capital L Velar lateral approximant 158
U+02A0
ʠ
ʠ Latin Small Letter Q with Hook "Voiceless" uvular implosive (obsolete) 167
U+02A1
ʡ
ʡ Latin Letter Glottal Stop with Stroke Epiglottal plosive 173
U+02A2
ʢ
ʢ Latin Letter Reversed Glottal Stop with Stroke Voiced epiglottal fricative 174
U+02A3
ʣ
ʣ Latin Small Letter DZ Digraph Voiced alveolar affricate (obsolete) 212
U+02A4
ʤ
ʤ Latin Small Letter Dezh Digraph Voiced postalveolar affricate (obsolete) 214
U+02A5
ʥ
ʥ Latin Small Letter DZ Digraph with Curl Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate (obsolete) 216
U+02A6
ʦ
ʦ Latin Small Letter TS Digraph Voiceless alveolar affricate (obsolete) 211
U+02A7
ʧ
ʧ Latin Small Letter Tesh Digraph Voiceless postalveolar affricate (obsolete) 213
U+02A8
ʨ
ʨ Latin Small Letter TC Digraph with Curl Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate (obsolete) 215
U+02A9
ʩ
ʩ Latin Small Letter Feng Digraph velopharyngeal fricative 602
U+02AA
ʪ
ʪ Latin Small Letter LS Digraph voiceless lateral alveolar fricative 603
U+02AB
ʫ
ʫ Latin Small Letter LZ Digraph voiced lateral alveolar fricative 604
U+02AC
ʬ
ʬ Latin Letter Bilabial Percussive Bilabial percussive
U+02AD
ʭ
ʭ Latin Letter Bidental Percussive Bidental percussive 601
U+02AE
ʮ
ʮ Latin Small Letter Turned H with Fishhook syllabic labialized voiced alveolar fricative (Sinologist usage)
U+02AF
ʯ
ʯ Latin Small Letter Turned H with Fishhook and Tail ? (Sinologist usage)

Subheadings[edit]

The IPA Extensions block contains only three subheadings, each associated with a set of characters encoded in a different version of Unicode, IPA extensions, IPA characters for disordered speech, and Additions for Sinology.[3]

IPA extensions[edit]

The IPA extensions are the first 89 characters of the IPA Extensions block, which includes Latin character variants and Greek borrowings that are regularly used only in IPA contexts.[3] The characters of the IPA extensions subheading were part of the original Unicode 1.0.

IPA characters for disordered speech[edit]

The IPA characters for disordered speech are additions to the IPA for phonemes that do not occur in natural languages, but are needed for recording pre-linguistic utterances by babies, gibberish from otherwise lingual individuals, and other non-linguistic but phonetic utterances.[3] The IPA characters for disordered speech were added to the IPA Extensions block in Unicode version 3.0.

Additions for Sinology[edit]

The Additions for Sinology are two symbols for phonemic transcription of classical Chinese.[3] The Additions for Sinology were added to the IPA Extensions block in Unicode version 4.0.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  2. ^ a b The Unicode Standard Version 1.0, Volume 1. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1990, 1991. ISBN 0-201-56788-1. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Unicode 6.2 code charts". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 1 April 2013.