Help:IPA for Hebrew
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Modern/Israeli Hebrew language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Since Modern Hebrew has both non-Oriental and Oriental pronunciation, certain letters may be transcribed differently depending on the background of the speaker. See Hebrew phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Hebrew.
- Note: An image of the chart is also available.
|β||ב (Veth)||v, ḇ||between bet and voice|
|dʒ||ג׳ (Gimel with geresh)||ǧ, j||joy|
|f||פ ף (Fe)||f or p̄, ph||fool|
|ɦ||ה (He)||h||Received Pronunciation behind|
|ħ||ח (Heth)||ḥ, h||no English equivalent; like hen but with the tongue against the pharynx|
|m||מ ם (Mem)||m||man|
|n||נ ן (Nun)||n||no|
|q||ק (Qoph)||k, q||no English equivalent; like kup but with the tongue further back|
|ʁ||ר (Resh)||r||Somewhat like run; French rouge|
|ʃ||שׁ (Shin)||š or sh||she|
|ts||צ ץ (Tsadi)||ts or tz, z||cats|
|tʃ||צ׳ ץ׳ (Tsadi with geresh)||č or ch||chair|
וו (double Vav)
|w||וו (double Vav)
כ ך (Chaph)
|ḥ/h or ḵ/ch/kh||Similar to Scottish loch|
|ʒ||ז׳ (Zayin with geresh)||ž or j||beige|
|ʾ or '||uh-(ʔ)oh|
|ʕ||ע (Ayin)||ʿ or '||no English equivalent|
|ð||ד׳ (Dhaleth with geresh)||th||this|
|θ||ת׳ (Thav with geresh)||th||thing|
|ä ~ a||(Patach), (Shva)||a||between trap and palm|
|ä(ː) ~ ɑ(ː)||ָ (Kamatz)||a, ā||palm|
|e(ː)||י (Zeire-Yod), (Zeire)||e, ei, ē||face|
|e ~ ɪ ~ i||(Hiriq)||i , e||kit|
|ɔ||ָ (Kamatz katan), (Shva)||o||cloth|
|o(ː)||ֹ (Holam alone), וֹ (with any mater lectionis)||o, ō||cloth, but less open|
|o ~ ʊ ~ u||וּ (Vav with shuruk), (Kubutz)||u||foot|
|u(ː)||וּ (Vav with shuruk)||u, ou, ū||groose|
|aɪ||י (Patach-Yod), ָי (Kamatz-Yud)||ai||price|
|ɔɪ||וֹי (Vav with holam male-Yod)||oi||choice|
|ʊɪ||וּי (Vav with shuruq-Yod)||ui||similar to Australian choice, but the first vowel is Near-close vowel|
|ɑʊ (rare)||אַוּ (Alef-Vav)||ao||mouth|
|ɛʊ (rare)||אֶוּ (Alef-Vav)||eu||similar to Irish mouth, but the first vowel is less open|
|iɪ (rare)||יְ(Hiriq-Yud with Shva Nach)
i.e. "נִיְלֵן" [niɪˈlen]
|ˈ||Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), e.g. אֹכֶל ('food') /ˈʔo:xɛl/, אוֹכֵל ('eating' [participle]) /ʔo:ˈxe:l/|
|ˌ||Secondary stress, e.g. הֲאֻמְנָם? ('oh, really?') /ˌhəʔʊmˈnɑ:m/|
|ː||Long vowels (in Tiberian Hebrew) can be transcribed using the IPA gemination sign ː, e.g. the word for "hand" would be יָד /jɔːd/ in absolute state and יַד־ /jad/ in construct state. Indicating normative consonant gemination is done with a double consonant, e.g. גַּנָּב ('a thief') /ɡanˈnɔv/ not /ɡaˈnːɔv/|
- /dʒ, ts, tʃ/ are officially written with a tie-bar in the IPA /d͡ʒ, t͡s, t͡ʃ/, respectively. The tie-bar is omitted for simplification.
- In Modern Israeli Hebrew, /ħ, ʕ, q/ have merged with /χ, ʔ, k/, respectively, while /ħ, ʕ/ are still distinguished by Oriental Hebrew speakers.
- /ʁ/ is uvular for most speakers, though some speakers, mostly Orientals, retain an alveolar pronunciation: [r]~[ɾ].
- In Modern Israeli Hebrew, /w/ appears in a few words, mostly loanwords. Example: וואו (wow) /waw/. Sometimes, in words which originally have /w/, it is approximated to [v].
- Vowel length and quality in Tiberian Hebrew is a matter of debate; this is just one possible example