IPA pulmonic consonant chart with audio

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The International Phonetic Alphabet, or IPA, is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language.[1]

In the IPA, a pulmonic consonant is a consonant made by obstructing the glottis (the space between the vocal cords) or oral cavity (the mouth) and either simultaneously or subsequently letting out air from the lungs. Pulmonic consonants make up the majority of consonants in the IPA, as well as in human language. All consonants in the English language fall into this category.[2]

In the audio samples below, the consonants are pronounced with the vowel [a] for demonstration.

IPA chart pulmonic consonants with audio
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal
↓ Manner Bila­bial Labio­dental Den­tal Alve­olar Post­alve­olar Retro­flex Pal­a­tal Ve­lar Uvu­lar Pha­ryn­geal Epi­glot­tal Glot­tal
Nasal
m
ɱ
n
ɳ
ɲ
ŋ
ɴ
Plosive
p
b
t
d
ʈ
ɖ
c
ɟ
k
ɡ
q
ɢ
ʡ
ʔ
Fricative
ɸ
β
f
v
θ
ð
s
z
ʃ
ʒ
ʂ
ʐ
ç
ʝ
x
ɣ
χ
ʁ
ħ
ʕ
ʜ
ʢ
h
ɦ
Approximant
ʋ
ɹ
ɻ
j
ɰ
Trill
ʙ
r
*
ʀ
я *
Flap or tap
ⱱ̟
ɾ
ɽ
ɢ̆ *
ʡ̯
Lateral fricative
ɬ
ɮ
ɭ˔̊
ʎ̥˔
ʟ̝̊
Lateral approximant
l
ɭ
ʎ
ʟ
Lateral flap
ɺ
ɺ̢ *
ʎ̯
Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • Loudspeaker.svg audio help • chart • view

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ International Phonetic Association. (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Fromkin, Victoria; Rodman, Robert (1998) [1974]. An Introduction to Language (6th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. ISBN 0-03-018682-X.