Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from IRIS (satellite))
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS).
IRIS
IRIS (Explorer).jpg
The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph
Mission type Solar UV astronomy
Operator NASA
COSPAR ID 2013-033A[1]
SATCAT № 39197
Mission duration 2 years (planned)
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer Lockheed Martin
Launch mass 183 kg (403 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 27 June 2013, 02:27:46 (2013-06-27UTC02:27:46Z) UTC
Rocket Pegasus-XL F42
Launch site Stargazer, Vandenberg
Contractor Orbital Sciences
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Sun-synchronous
Semi-major axis 7,016.56 km (4,359.89 mi)[2]
Eccentricity 0.0029469[2]
Perigee 624 km (388 mi)[2]
Apogee 666 km (414 mi)[2]
Inclination 97.90 degrees[2]
Period 97.49 minutes[2]
Epoch 25 October 2014, 15:01:52 UTC[2]

The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is a NASA solar observation satellite. The mission was funded through the Small Explorer program to investigate the physical conditions of the solar limb, particularly the chromosphere of the Sun. The spacecraft consists of a satellite bus and spectrometer built by the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL), and a telescope provided by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. IRIS is operated by LMSAL and NASA's Ames Research Center.

The satellite's instrument is a high-frame-rate ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, providing one image per second at 0.3 arcsecond spatial resolution and sub-ångström spectral resolution.

NASA announced on 19 June 2009 that IRIS was selected from six small explorer mission candidates for further study,[3] along with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) space observatory.[4]

The spacecraft arrived at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on 16 April 2013[5] and was successfully launched on 27 June 2013 by a Pegasus-XL rocket.[6]

Science Results[edit]

IRIS achieved first light on 17 July 2013.[7] NASA noted, "IRIS's first images showed a multitude of thin, fibril-like structures that have never been seen before, revealing enormous contrasts in density and temperature occur throughout this region even between neighboring loops that are only a few hundred miles apart."[7] On 31 October 2013, calibrated IRIS data and images were released on the project website.[8] A preprint describing the satellite and initial data has been released on the arXiv.[9]

Data collected from the IRIS spacecraft has shown that the interface region of the sun is significantly more complex than previously known. This includes features described as solar heat bombs, high-speed plasma jets, nano-flares, and mini-tornadoes. These features are an important step in understanding the transfer of heat to the corona.[10]

IRIS team[edit]

Science and engineering team members include:[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)". NASA. 16 August 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "IRIS Satellite details 2013-033A NORAD 39197". N2YO. 25 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  3. ^ Harrington, J. D. (29 May 2008). "NASA Selects Small Explorer Investigations for Concept Studies". NASA.gov. 
  4. ^ Harrington, J. D. (19 June 2009). "NASA Awards Two Small Explorer Development Contracts". NASA.gov. 
  5. ^ Hendrix, Susan; Diller, George (17 April 2013). "NASA'S Newest Solar Satellite Arrives at Vandenberg AFB for Launch". NASA.gov. 
  6. ^ "IRIS Solar Observatory Launches, Begins Mission". NASA.gov. 28 June 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Fox, Karen C. (25 July 2013). "NASA's IRIS Telescope Offers First Glimpse of Sun's Mysterious Atmosphere". NASA.gov. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  8. ^ a b "Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph". Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory. 
  9. ^ De Pontieu, B.; Title, A. M.; Lemen, J.; Kushner, G. D.; Akin, D. J.; Allard, B.; Berger, T.; Boerner, P. et al. (July 2014). "The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)". Solar Physics 289 (7): 2733–2779. arXiv:1401.2491. Bibcode:2014SoPh..289.2733D. doi:10.1007/s11207-014-0485-y. 
  10. ^ De Pontieu, B.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; McIntosh, S. W.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M. et al. (17 October 2014). "On the prevalence of small-scale twist in the solar chromosphere and transition region". Science 346 (6207). doi:10.1126/science.1255732. 

External links[edit]