ISKCON guru system

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"ISKCON Guru" redirects here. For ISKCON members, see List of International Society for Krishna Consciousness members and patrons.
Chanting beads, normally of tulasi wood given by an ISKCON Guru at the initiation to an ISKCON devotee of Krishna.

ISKCON guru is permitted to initiate disciples in the system that is being used in International Society for Krishna Consciousness; this ISKCON Guru System has undergone a considerable evolution and reform since its beginnings in the 1970s. Upanayana as a traditional "sacred thread ceremony" of the Gayatri Mantra, commonly known Hindu Samskara, is complemented by Pancaratric mantras of the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya and follows the principal initial nama initiation ceremony, referred to respectively as brahmana diksa and Hari nama diksa.[1]

Etymology[edit]

ISKCON Gaudiya Vaishnavas often refer to lexicons of Amarakośa thesaurus of Sanskrit for meanings of words and according to the writings of the Gaudiya acaryas, the word guru is very often defined as one who; represents the Supreme Lord, who does not manufacture anything, but teaches in accordance with the scriptures (sastra) and the previous ācāryas.[2] This definition of a wider concept of guru in Hinduism links the question of the relative authority of the guru’s words and those of the sastra in a crucial relationship. Baladeva Vidyabhushana, 18th century principal Gaudiya theologian used and defined guru in his commentaries on Vedanta-sutra. Specifically, in the comments to the sutras 3.3.44-45 Baladeva Vidyabhushana argues that the concept of guru’s grace plays the central role in the system of teacher-student succession."

Philosophy[edit]

Images on the dome of the samadhi of Prabhupada, pre-eminent siksa guru to all ISKCON devotees.

Scriptural evidence towards the issue of a guru lies mainly in a large volume of Sanskrit work named Hari Bhakti Vilasa which received commentary by Sanatana Gosvami. It is the foundation of traditional Vaishnava philosophy and has 9.275 verses, divided in twenty chapters (called Vilasas). First chapter is dedicated to guru, with second dedicated to ritual process of initiation by the guru. The worship of guru is described towards the end of the third vilasa.[3]

The place of guru and his grace (prasada) plays a vital role in the Vaisnava traditions in general and in ISKCON Gaudiya Vaishnavism in particular. The generic view on a guru as a representative of God is a central feature to the tradition and philosophy:

God and the soul combine in their own ways within the archetype of the spiritual guide. For both, the spiritual master is a type of extraordinary confluence of divinity and humanity, as each tradition exalts ways in which the guide becomes directly and effectively the grace of God in the flesh.

—Graham M. Schweig

In contrast with the established traditional view of ISKCON some rare sahajia groups in Bengal treat their own preceptor (guru) as the living God.[4] This view is different or contrasted to the concept of a guru being "as good as God".[3]

Unlike being a god in a human form,[5] the process of being appointed as a guru within ISKCON is currently done by a process which could be described as consensual or democratic and involves voting.[6] It is suggested that being as good as god is not a theological but a practical consideration, just as wife serves her husband in Hindu traditions as good as god.[3]

While the "submission of the disciple is neither irrational or blind."[7] The question of qualification and humility remained opened for generations prior to creation of ISKCON in the West. In his speech Assuming Responsibility of Being Guru Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, who founded the popular branch of the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition that resulted in creation of ISKCON, underlined the contrast of humility and responsibility of the performance of the duties of being a guru:

"He whose only teaching is humility greater than that of a blade of grass (Caitanya Mahaprabhu), said: "By My command being guru save this land!" In this instance Mahaprabhu Himself has given the command. His command being "Perform the duty of the guru, even as I do it Myself. Also convey this command to whom-so-ever you chance to meet."

—Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. 1934

It has been seen that much of the debate over authority and continuity over the years has focused on one issue: namely, whether current GBC members and gurus are spiritually qualified.[8][9] Guru in a post-charismatic phase of ISKCON is a subject of number studies and debates.

According to the Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati ceremony of diksha in Gaudiya Vaisnavism, also called initiation, is that "by which the spiritual preceptor admits one to the status of a neophyte on the path of spiritual endeavor." [7]

Parallel lines of authority[edit]

ISKCON is seen as an extension of the Gaudiya-Vaishnava tradition and thus participates in the disciplic succession from Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In most Indic traditions spiritual authority rests in one person, or acharya, head of a monastery or a whole sampradaya. ISKCON is sometimes described as the "first global Vaisnava movement" and is different. ISKCON is a multi-guru organization that places the ultimate managerial authority in its Governing Body, a group rather than a single person. Current ISKCON Guru System is developed by the group of leaders, Governing Body Commission, (GBC), the managerial authority of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. ISKCON Guru system was originally initiated and put in place by ISKCON's founder, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada who organized and sometimes himself conducted initiations since early 1970s. Currently the GBC is entrusted with both spiritual and secular leadership of the ISKCON communities, as well as the power to appoint new gurus. According to a GBC confidence survey "those holding critical views of the GBC were far less committed to ISKCON" and it was also noted that householder members of ISKCON provides less support for ISKCON's gurus and the guru institution than the residents of ISKCON asramas controlled by GBC.[10] In recent years GBC started to develop a regional seminar "Spiritual Leadership: Being a Guru in ISKCON" and made it mandatory for all future gurus to attend. The course is based on the work of a group of seniors representing cross section of international devotees and is developed in coordination with Vaisnava Training and Education, the Guru Services Committee of GBC. It was launched in Ujjain just prior to the 2008 annual GBC meetings.[11] Sastric Advisory Council to GBC has reported that there is a desire for control of who is ISKCON guru, the present system does not provides effective safeguards and at the same time contradicts the truly humble attitude of the Vaishnavas and is in danger of gradual corruption.[12]

Background[edit]

In 1977 eleven prominent leaders were left to become an initiating gurus in ISKCON.[13][14][15][16] Since founder’s death the number of ISKCON devotees accepting disciples has increased. Recently, some of grand-disciples (disciples of disciples) have begun to accept disciples in the next generation. Prabhupada is officially considered a Founder-acarya, and is assumed to be "pre-eminent" guru of all devotees in his society.

According to the theological epistemology of the tradition, scriptural or Vedic knowledge is the only way to achieve the knowledge of the out-worldly or transcendental realm. However the notable exception to this rule is what is called vaidushya-pratyaksa, or the faultless and pure preception of a pure realised soul, which forms the foundation the scripture itself.[17]

There are few female gurus in Gaudiya Vaishnavism. In 2009, ISKCON began procedures to recognise female gurus.

In a typical initiation ceremony as a guru of International Society for Krishna Consciousness he would begin with purification using achamana (holy water) and concludes with a sermon on the importance of chanting of the holy names in the life of new initiate.[18]

History[edit]

Direct initiations[edit]

Satsvarupa das Goswami During ISKCON diksa ceremony in 1979.

The history of initiations in ISKCON is started with the foundation of the society in 1966 and develops through a number of periods from the initial date to present times. During the first initiations in September 1966 disciples were given names, asked to remain strictly vegetarian and asked to chant 25 rounds of japa. Soon additional requirements followed, but the number of prescribed rounds of Hare Krishna japa was reduced to the minimum 16.

At my initiation, Prabhupäda told me to chant twenty-five rounds, but shortly afterwards he reduced the number to sixteen. After my initiation I faithfully executed Prabhupäda’s order to chant sixteen rounds a day.

—Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami.[19]

Some devotees shaved their heads after the first initiation. First second initiation was in Boston, May 9, 1968 where only male devotees were initiated. However next day saw a number of women initiated too.[20]

From the period of the first initiation in 1966 until early 1970 Srila Prabhupada would organize all initiations personally. At this stage Hare Krishna movement was rather small in numbers and most of the devotees were located in United States.

Early deviations[edit]

At a festival at New Vrindaban, West Virginia, on Janmastami day 1970, four recently-initiated sannayasis, Brahmananda, Gargamuni, Subala and Visnujana, had announced that by leaving America, Prabhupada had rejected his disciples for failing to recognize that Prabhupada was actually Krishna Himself. This is considered to be a sign of mayavada-impersonalism.[21] All four were temporarily banned from preaching within ISKCON. One was demonized by his Godbrothers,[8] but Visnujana Swami is still considered a saint, despite his sudden disappearance in 1976.

Proxy initiations[edit]

Starting from 1971 Prabhupada would start delegating the function of chanting of beads and doing yajna to his disciples. He would often initiate by mail and every temple president had a cassette of Prabhupada chanting the gayatri mantra which was played in the ear of the new second initiate and that was as good as hearing the gayatri mantra from Srila Prabhupada himself.[22] From the beginning of January 1973 Revatinandana and Kirtanananda were instructed also to chant on the beads of new initiates while Prabhupada would continue to deal with the "matter of brahmana initiations", however sometimes the mantra was given personally by disciples too.[23][24]

Initiations in 1977[edit]

In 1977 that was also changed by Prabhupada, and even the function of the second initiation was delegated to a few selected disciples. In the middle of May 1977, while in Hrishikesh, his health had turned for the worse and Prabhupada called all his GBC members to Vrindavana for instruction.[25] The discussion of May 28 was recorded. There was a backlog of candidates and on 9 July a letter by his secretary, Tamal Krishna Goswami, was sent out, and that named eleven senior disciples who would now be responsible for giving initiations to the new candidates. At this point the new candidates need no longer write to him and the recommendations don’t have to come to him for confirmation.[23]

After death[edit]

A number of scholars have documented the struggle for authority created by Prabhupada’s departure. Two supporters of ISKCON, Shriman Narayan, the former Governor of Gujarat and a prominent industrialist Ram Krishna Bajaj raised issues of the appointment of a single successor from among his followers. Prabhupada answered that all his disciples would succeed him.[8]

Period of no initiations[edit]

The period from the date of death until the March 1978 annual meeting saw no initiations in ISKCON outside of Kirtanananda Swami's zone.[26] Annual meeting of Governing commission of ISKCON was scheduled before Gaura Purnima festival in March and Prabhupada long established that the GBC are his "direct representatives to act as the instrument for the execution of the will of His Divine Grace".[27]

Early Zonal acaryas period[edit]

From 1978 until 1982, only eleven devotees were allowed to initiate new disciples and give brahmana (or second) initiation to existing ISKCON devotees, who became known as Prabhupada disciples despite receiving sampradaya mantra from new ISKCON gurus. There was noticeable difference between these newly appointed ISKCON gurus and Prabhupada. The new ISKCON gurus, known as Zonal acaryas, were all under the age of thirty-five—many were still in their twenties—and some had only been devotees for five years at the time of their appointment. Yet they had not only become the movement’s elders, they were catapulted to an absolute status. Beginning in 1980, less than three years after Prabhupada’s death, guru controversies arose in rapid succession. In general, ISKCON was led by young men who, until the formation of the first schisms, wielded much power despite their lack of maturity. In the words of one GBC member: “In Prabhupada’s time the only problem was that there was only one real adult in the movement.”[28]

Mid Zonal acaryas period[edit]

In 1982, a few new gurus were added to the list, including Gopala Krishna Goswami and Bhaktisvarupa Damodar Swami. All gurus at this stage were assigned honorific names, such as Srila Gurudeva, Srila Vishnupada, Srila Gurupada, Srila Acharyadeva, Srila Bhagavatpada, Srila Bhaktipada etc., they also accepted daily worship on a Vyasasana, the throne was allocated to each person, but a collective Vyasasanas were specially constructed for gatherings. When one of the eleven gurus, Jayatirtha, left for the Gaudiya Math by waking out the Mayapur campus towards Sridhara Swami, the latter tried to mediate between the GBC and Jayatirtha, who recently took sannyasa, but that increased tensions with Gaudiya Math and Sridhara Swami's followers serving in ISKCON. This year, 1982, GBC expelled Jayatirtha from ISKCON and a sub-committee was sent in the middle of the meetings to his GBC zone to prevent the crisis. His disciples had locked themselves in a separate building near Bhaktivedanta Manor and would not engage in negotiations. Later a separate committee was formed to appoint new ISKCON gurus for his zone.[29] During this period at least one of the eleven gurus had suggested lowering the worship received, but this motion was not passed.[30]

Zonal Guru reform[edit]

A number of devotees, all directly initiated by Prabhupada, were observing that many controlling positions were being lost to disciples of new gurus. Additionally, one of the gurus was conditionally suspended during 1984 GBC meetings for sexual misconduct. An informal group headed by Ravindra Svarupa Dasa and others was formed in 1984 to investigate and gather information about possible deviations in different regions. This campaign resulted in Temple Presidents meeting in New Vrindavana, September 1985, headed by Bahudaka Das, the President of the North American Temple Presidents, Ravindra Svarupa Dasa, Vice President and Krishna Gopal Das, the Secretary. A threat of no confidence vote was issued towards the Governing Body Commission and demand that all power to be returned to direct disciples of Prabhupada. A number of senior GBCs, including Tamal Krishna Goswami and Satsvarupa Das Goswami, became active supporters of the reform. However, in November 1985 European management assembly had issued a protest against the demands of the North American temple presidents and issued a joint statement. The reformers aimed at removing dedicated vyasasanas from the temple space, stopping daily guru puja ceremonies for new gurus and reforming use of honorifics among others, reserving use of His Divine Grace,-pada and -deva honorifics only towards Prabhupada himself. A demand to include new GBCs and new ISKCON gurus was issued and 1986 saw both resignations of a number of Zonal gurus and increased number of new gurus and GBCs. End of 1985 also saw an attack on most senior ISKCON guru, Kirtanananda Swami, who refused to accept lowering of the worship and insisted that he should retain the title of Founder-acarya of New Vrindavana. Following this conflict between this largest ISKCON community and the reformers New Vrindavana was officially expelled from ISKCON in 1988, all reformers shortly became new ISKCON gurus and many of them were elected as the new GBC. (Bozeman. 2000)

Controversies[edit]

Siddhaswarupa[edit]

A prominent disciple of Prabhupada (Chris Butler, or Siddhaswarupananda (Siddha Swarupa Ananda) Goswami, later on as Siddhaswarupananda Paramahamsa, of Science of Identity Institute) who had following in the yoga training prior to joining would not accept existing leadership and would face a conflict with the GBC management structure. He had his own movement after the split in 1975. He maintained the leadership over the disenchanted ISKCON members in Hawaii even as they formed their own political party. With the departure, the tension between Siddha Svarupa and ISKCON devotees increased, although Siddhaswarupa maintained a cordial relationship with Prabhupada. After the disappearance of Prabhupada (his Gurudev) from this world in 1977, he took the role of diksha (initiating) guru and began to initiate disciples.[31][32] Since 1977 Siddhaswarupa does not accept that the eleven devotees whom Prabhupada appointed were gurus or acharyas. Having accepted the tile of Jagad Guru (World Master), he sees himself in this lineage of pure but non-appointed devotees.[33][34]

Gaudiya Math leaders[edit]

Many deviations or guru related schisms are centered on charismatic individual leadership. After the pre-1977 departure of Siddhaswarupa, a number of ISKCON devotees started following variety of Gaudiya Math gurus, all of whom were individual leaders of separate parallel institutions. One of the leaders of the schismatic groups was Bhaktivedanta Narayana Maharaja, who was a friend and a well-wisher of ISKCON for many years and a personal friend of Prabhupada. While Narayana Maharaja’s large following was restricted to non-ISKCON Indians prior to 1991, with an exception of a few ISKCON Vrindavana residents, nearly all of his post-1991 Western followers were previously ISKCON members, and since the majority of his Western followers have left ISKCON in 1995 after the GBC action, these followers have turned to ISKCON for fresh recruits escalating the conflict. Following many years of apparent confrontation in April 2010 ISKCON’s Governing Body Commission has released a forty-page document that clarifies the good relationship between Prabhupada and Narayana Maharaja.

This document follows up a meeting between Narayana Maharaja and several senior members of the GBC in October 2009 at the sacred town of Govardhana, India. During the meeting, ISKCON leaders apologized to Narayana Maharaja for their failure to communicate with him in a proper and timely manner in 1995, regarding policies they had just established concerning members of ISKCON taking instruction from other gurus outside of their society.[35]

The rtivik idea[36][edit]

As some news of ISKCON gurus’ misdeeds spread in late 1980s, some ISKCON members began to question the validity of Prabhupada’s having appointed members to the role of the spiritual master. Members in early 1990s attempted to prove that there was no need for any new gurus; rather, Prabhupada’s disciples could initiate newcomers on Prabhupada’s behalf as proxies for Prabhupada (the Sanskrit word rtvik means “officiating priest”). There are number of different or contradictory factions in the rtvik heresy. Of various rtvik groups, ISKCON Bangalore is considered to be the most influential.[37]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ First is synonymous to what in other Vaisnava traditions is called Saranagati Diksa or Pancha Samskara.
  2. ^ A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami: The Science of Self Realization - What Is a Guru? "Reporter: How can a person tell he has a genuine guru? Śrīla Prabhupāda: Can any of my students answer this question? Disciple: Once I remember John Lennon asked you, “How will I know who is the genuine guru?” And you answered, “Just find out the one who is most addicted to Kṛṣṇa. He is genuine.” Śrīla Prabhupāda: Yes. The genuine guru is God’s representative, and he speaks about God and nothing else. The genuine guru is he who has no interest in materialistic life. He is after God, and God only. That is one of the tests of a genuine guru: brahma-niṣṭham. He is absorbed in the Absolute Truth. In the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad it is stated, śrotriyaṁ brahma-niṣṭham: [MU 1.2.12] “The genuine guru is well versed in the scriptures and Vedic knowledge, and he is completely dependent on Brahman.” He should know what Brahman [spirit] is and how to become situated in Brahman. These signs are given in the Vedic literature. As I said before, the real guru is God’s representative. He represents the Supreme Lord, just as a viceroy represents a king. The real guru will not manufacture anything. Everything he says is in accordance with the scriptures and the previous ācāryas
  3. ^ a b c Måns Broo: As Good as God. The Guru in Gaudiya Vaisnavism. ISBN 83-85527-56-7, [1](Åbo: Åbo Akademis Förlag 2003).
  4. ^ Pratibharanjan Maitra (ed.), Mursidabad carca. Khagra/Baharampur/Mursidabad: Mursidabad Carca Kendra, 1395 (Beng. Era), pp. 93-122.
  5. ^ Kartabhajas on the contrast maintain: guru thaken sahasrare, sat-cakra upare “The guru resides in the Sahasrara [within the human body], on top of the six cakras”. See Adbaita Candra Das: Sri satima candrika. Calcutta 1986, p. 87.
  6. ^ Hrdayananda Dasa Goswami: The Role of the Guru in a Multi-Guru Society, ISKCON Communications Journal 8,1 (June 2000): 45-53.
  7. ^ a b Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, Initiation Into The Spiritual Life, December 1928, Vol 26. 7 Sri Sajjana-toshani
  8. ^ a b c T.K. Goswami, 'The Perils of Succession Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement', Cults and Society, Vol. 1, 1, 2001.
  9. ^ See also:‘Leader Misconduct, Religious Authority, and the Development of the Hare Krishna Movement,’ in Anson Shupe, ed, Wolves Among the Fold. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1997
  10. ^ Rochford, E. Burke (2007) Hare Krishna Transformed, p. 245,70. "GBC Confidence Survey"
  11. ^ Dasa, A.T. GBC Meetings 2008 - Day 2: ISKCON Guru Seminar, Scientific Preaching and Mayapur Academy Graduation. News.ISKCON.com
  12. ^ From SAC statement: The GBC desires to exercise some control over who represents ISKCON as initiating gurus. The SAC proposes, however, that the present system does not provide effective safeguards, and at the same time it stifles initiative. In other words, applying for the guru post and approaching devotees for recommendations does not sit well with truly humble Vaisnavas. And it’s the truly humble who are most worthy to become our Society’s gurus. We should also be aware from the history of other sampradayas and religions of the real danger of gradual corruption. Even if apparent purity were maintained for some time by a bureaucratic regulating system of authorization, the eternal temptations of misusing the status of guru for self-aggrandizement could ruin the system and the institution. In future generations we, like other sampradayas, could become burdened with gurus who collect disciples mainly for money and power. Such corruption could occur even while maintaining the external appearance of bureaucratic purity. Therefore SAC suggests that the GBC shift their oversight to mainly after-the-fact. Exactly how this is to be implemented should be decided by the GBC. Bureaucratic processes about the suitability of a person to function as guru before the person has actually functioned as a guru have not proved successful as an effective guarantee. The actual behavior of the person as guru has, in practice, turned out to be the only effective basis for determining merit. One might argue that such a system does not guarantee that a guru will remain fixed on the spiritual platform, but that is true of any system.[citation needed]
  13. ^ Smith, Huston; Harry Oldmeadow (2004). Journeys East: 20th century Western encounters with Eastern religious traditions. Bloomington, Ind: World Wisdom. p. 272. ISBN 0-941532-57-7. Before his death Prabhupada appointed eleven American devotees as gurus. 
  14. ^ Rochford, E. Burke (1985). Hare Krishna in America. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press. p. 222. ISBN 0-8135-1114-3. In the months preceding his death Srila Prabhupada appointed eleven of his closest disciples to act as initiating gurus for ISKCON 
  15. ^ Ron Rhodes (2001). Challenge of the Cults and New Religions. Zondervan. p. 179. ISBN 0-310-23217-1. Before Prabhupada died in 1977, he selected senior devotees who would continue to direct the organization. 
  16. ^ Rodney Stark (1985). Religious movements. Paragon House Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 0-913757-43-8. Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, one of the eleven initiating gurus Bhaktivedanta appointed to succeed him... 
  17. ^ Sarva-samvadini commentary to Tattva sandarbhuas, 12, by Jiva Goswami cited in Måns Broo: As Good as God. The Guru in Gaudiya Vaisnavism. ISBN 83-85527-56-7 p. 9.
  18. ^ Shinn 1987, p. 104
  19. ^ Gosvāmī, Satsvarūpa Dāsa (1997). With Śrīla Prabhupāda in the early days: a memoir. Port Royal, Pa: GN Press. ISBN 0-911233-84-9. 
  20. ^ According to Prabhupada: "Yes, there is definitely a vast difference between initiated and non-initiated. One who is initiated is authorized, and one who is not initiated is not authorized." Letter to Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami, November 14, 1968.
  21. ^ Vaiyasaki dasa, Radha-Damodar Vilasa, "New Vrindaban Shakedown" pp. 299-318
  22. ^ Letter to a temple president 15 December 1973 would state: "Take instruction from Satsvarupa Goswami on how to properly perform the fire yajna after which the initiates may listen once to the mantra in the right ear from the cassette tape I have made."
  23. ^ a b "Kirtanananda will chant on the beads for new devotees in America, Canada, like that, you can chant on the beads for the European continent new disciples." Letter 73-01-04 cited in: Dasa, Hari Sauri A brief overview of the history of the process of initiation in ISKCON.
  24. ^ Addressing a concern that one of the disciples, Siddhaswarupa started initiating his own disciples a letter to Tusta Krsna Swami, his associate, was sent on December 2, 1975: “Keep trained very rigidly, and then you are bona fide guru, and you can accept disciples on the same principle. But as a matter of etiquette it is the custom that during the lifetime of your spiritual master you bring the prospective disciples to him, and in his absence or disappearance you can accept disciples without any limitation. This is the law of disciplic succession. I want to see my disciples become bona fide spiritual master and spread Krishna consciousness very widely; that will make me and Kṛṣṇa very happy.”
  25. ^ When they arrived Prabhupāda told them, “Now, if you have any questions about anything that is not clear, you meet together, you formulate your questions, and then you come to me and I will answer them.”
  26. ^ “[W]hen the GBC held its first meeting in the absence of Srila Prabhupada in Mayapura in early 1978, the issue of how to proceed with initiations was the main agenda item. We had no experience and many members felt that the more input we had on it the better. . . . Kirtanananda I think was the exception. He had started giving initiations almost immediately after Srila Prabhupada’s disappearance.” Hari-sauri dasa, “The Hand of Fate...” Vaishnava Blog Feeds (http://www.prabhupada.org/rama/?p=4476) accessed on March 5, 2010.
  27. ^ Gosvāmī, Satsvarūpa Dāsa (1982). Srīla Prabhupāda-līlāmrta: a biography of His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda IV. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-89213-357-0. 
  28. ^ Brian Bloch "Social Theory and Schisms in the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Presentation on ISKCON Studies conference, 2008
  29. ^ Betrayal of the spirit: my life behind the headlines of the Hare Krishna By Nori Jean Muster, University of Illinois Press. p. 83
  30. ^ Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Journals and Poems, vol.1-2 Gita Nagari Press 1980–1986.
  31. ^ http://www.scienceofidentityfoundation.org/about_jagad_guru - Teaching on behalf of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, 7th sentence
  32. ^ http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=OgMmceadQ3gC&pg=PA411&lpg=PA411&ots=lTXxFZEdig&focus=viewport&dq=science+of+identity+foundation+cult&hl=fil&output=html_text
  33. ^ Haribols Special cited in The book of enlightened masters: western teachers in eastern traditions. Andrew Rawlinson - 1997
  34. ^ From slogans to mantras: social protest and religious conversion in the late Vietnam War era by Stephen A. Kent - Syracuse University Press 2001, p.65.
  35. ^ M. Smullen. ISKCON News. New GBC Paper Clarifies Relationship Between Srila Prabhupada and Narayana Maharaja.[dead link]
  36. ^ ISKCON TRUTH: Official Watchdogs of ISKCON
  37. ^ See also: Ed. Rahul Peter Das The Rival Positions in the IRM–GBC Controversy within ISKCON. Authorised statements by Krishnakant Desai and Christopher Shannon ISBN 3-86010-844-1

References and Links[edit]

See also[edit]