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ISO/IEC 27002 is an information security standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), entitled Information technology - Security techniques - Code of practice for information security management.
ISO/IEC 27002:2005 has developed from BS7799, published in the mid-1990s. The British Standard was adopted by ISO/IEC as ISO/IEC 17799:2000, revised in 2005, and renumbered (but otherwise unchanged) in 2007 to align with the other ISO/IEC 27000-series standards.
ISO/IEC 27002 provides best practice recommendations on information security management for use by those responsible for initiating, implementing or maintaining information security management systems (ISMS). Information security is defined within the standard in the context of the C-I-A triad:
- the preservation of confidentiality (ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access), integrity (safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information and processing methods) and availability (ensuring that authorized users have access to information and associated assets when required).
After the 3 introductory sections (1. Framework, 2. Acceptable Use of Information Technology Resources, and 3. Information Security Definition & Terms), the standard contains the following twelve main sections:
4. Risk assessment
5. Security policy - management direction
6. Organization of information security - governance of information security
7. Asset management - inventory and classification of information assets
8. Human resources security - security aspects for employees joining, moving and leaving an organization
9. Physical and environmental security - protection of the computer facilities
10. Communications and operations management - management of technical security controls in systems and networks
11. Access control - restriction of access rights to networks, systems, applications, functions and data
12. Information systems acquisition, development and maintenance - building security into applications
13. Information security incident management - anticipating and responding appropriately to information security breaches
14. Business continuity management - protecting, maintaining and recovering business-critical processes and systems
15. Compliance - ensuring conformance with information security policies, standards, laws and regulations
Within each section, information security controls and their objectives are specified and outlined. The information security controls are generally regarded as best practice means of achieving those objectives. For each of the controls, implementation guidance is provided. Specific controls are not mandated since:
- Each organization is expected to undertake a structured information security risk assessment process to determine its specific requirements before selecting controls that are appropriate to its particular circumstances. The introduction section outlines a risk assessment process although there are more specific standards covering this area such as ISO/IEC 27005. The use of information security risk analysis to drive the selection and implementation of information security controls is an important feature of the ISO/IEC 27000-series standards: it means that the generic good practice advice in this standard gets tailored to the specific context of each user organization, rather than being applied by rote. Not all of the 39 control objectives are necessarily relevant to every organization for instance, hence entire categories of control may not be deemed necessary. The standards are also open ended in the sense that the information security controls are 'suggested', leaving the door open for users to adopt alternative controls if they wish, just so long as the key control objectives relating to the mitigation of information security risks, are satisfied. This helps keep the standard relevant despite the evolving nature of information security threats, vulnerabilities and impacts, and trends in the use of certain information security controls.
- It is practically impossible to list all conceivable controls in a general purpose standard. Industry-specific implementation guidelines for ISO/IEC 27001 and ISO/IEC 27002 offer advice tailored to organizations in the telecomms industry (see ISO/IEC 27011) and healthcare (see ISO 27799), with additional guidelines for the financial services and other industries in preparation.
Most organizations implement a wide range of information security-related controls, many of which are recommended in general terms by ISO/IEC 27002. Structuring the information security controls infrastructure in accordance with ISO/IEC 27002 may be advantageous since it:
- Is associated with a well-respected international standard
- Helps avoid coverage gaps and overlaps
- Is likely to be recognized by those who are familiar with the ISO/IEC standard
Implementation example of ISO/IEC 27002 
Here are a few examples of typical information security policies and other controls relating to three parts of ISO/IEC 27002. (Note: this is merely an illustration. The list of example controls is incomplete and not universally applicable.)
Physical and Environmental security 
- Physical access to premises and support infrastructure (communications, power, air conditioning etc.) must be monitored and restricted to prevent, detect and minimize the effects of unauthorized and inappropriate access, tampering, vandalism, criminal damage, theft etc.
- The list of people authorized to access secure areas must be reviewed and approved periodically (at least once a year) by Administration or Physical Security Department, and cross-checked by their departmental managers.
- Photography or video recording is forbidden inside Restricted Areas without prior permission from the designated authority.
- Suitable video surveillance cameras must be located at all entrances and exits to the premises and other strategic points such as Restricted Areas, recorded and stored for at least one month, and monitored around the clock by trained personnel.
- Access cards permitting time-limited access to general and/or specific areas may be provided to trainees, vendors, consultants, third parties and other personnel who have been identified, authenticated, and authorized to access those areas.
- Other than in public areas such as the reception foyer, and private areas such as rest rooms, visitors should be escorted at all times by an employee while on the premises.
- The date and time of entry and departure of visitors along with the purpose of visits must be recorded in a register maintained and controlled by Site Security or Reception.
- Everyone on site (employees and visitors) must wear and display their valid, issued pass at all times, and must present their pass for inspection on request by a manager, security guard or concerned employee.
- Access control systems must themselves be adequately secured against unauthorized/inappropriate access and other compromises.
- Fire/evacuation drills must be conducted periodically (at least once a year).
- Smoking is forbidden inside the premises other than in designated Smoking Zones.
Human Resource security 
- All employees must be screened prior to employment, including identity verification using a passport or similar photo-ID and at least two satisfactory professional references. Additional checks are required for employees taking up trusted positions.
- All employees must formally accept a binding confidentiality or non-disclosure agreement concerning personal and proprietary information provided to or generated by them in the course of employment.
- Human Resources department must inform Administration, Finance and Operations when an employee is taken on, transferred, resigns, is suspended or released on long-term leave, or their employment is terminated.
- Upon receiving notification from HR that an employee's status has changed, Administration must update their physical access rights and IT Security Administration must update their logical access rights accordingly.
- An employee's manager must ensure that all access cards, keys, IT equipment, storage media and other valuable corporate assets are returned by the employee on or before their last day of employment, as a condition of authorizing their final pay.
Access control 
- Users of corporate IT systems, networks, applications and information must be individually identified and authenticated.
- User access to corporate IT systems, networks, applications and information must be controlled in accordance with access requirements specified by the relevant Information Asset Owners, normally according to the user's role.
- Generic or test IDs must not be created or enabled on production systems unless specifically authorized by the relevant Information Asset Owners.
- After a predefined number of unsuccessful logon attempts, security log entries and (where appropriate) security alerts must be generated and user accounts must be locked out as required by the relevant Information Asset Owners.
- Passwords or pass phrases must be lengthy and complex, consisting of a mix of letters, numerals and special characters that would be difficult to guess.
- Passwords or pass phrases must not be written down or stored in readable format.
- Authentication information such as passwords, security logs, security configurations and so forth must be adequately secured against unauthorized or inappropriate access, modification, corruption or loss.
- Privileged access rights typically required to administer, configure, manage, secure and monitor IT systems must be reviewed periodically (at least twice a year) by Information Security and cross-checked by the appropriate departmental managers.
- Users must either log off or password-lock their sessions before leaving them unattended.
- Password-protected screensavers with an inactivity timeout of no more than 10 minutes must be enabled on all workstations/PCs.
- Write access to removable media (USB drives, CD/DVD writers etc.) must be disabled on all desktops unless specifically authorized for legitimate business reasons.
National Equivalent Standards 
ISO/IEC 27002 has directly equivalent national standards in several countries. Translation and local publication often results in several months' delay after the main ISO/IEC standard is revised and released, but the national standard bodies go to great lengths to ensure that the translated content accurately and completely reflects ISO/IEC 27002.
|Australia||AS/NZS ISO/IEC 27002:2006|
|Brazil||ISO/IEC NBR 17799/2007 - 27002|
|Chile||NCH2777 ISO/IEC 17799/2000|
|Czech Republic||ČSN ISO/IEC 27002:2006|
|Estonia||EVS-ISO/IEC 17799:2003, 2005 version in translation|
|Germany||DIN ISO/IEC 27002:2008|
|Japan||JIS Q 27002|
|Lithuania||LST ISO/IEC 27002:2009 (adopted ISO/IEC 27002:2005, ISO/IEC 17799:2005)|
|Poland||PN-ISO/IEC 17799:2007, based on ISO/IEC 17799:2005|
|Russia||ГОСТ/Р ИСО МЭК 17799-2005|
|Slovakia||STN ISO/IEC 27002:2006|
|South Africa||SANS 27002:2008/ISO/IEC 27002:2005|
|Turkey||TS ISO/IEC 27002|
|Ukraine||СОУ Н НБУ 65.1 СУІБ 2.0:2010|
|United Kingdom||BS ISO/IEC 27002:2005|
ISO/IEC 27002 is an advisory standard that is meant to be interpreted and applied to all types and sizes of organization according to the particular information security risks they face. In practice, this flexibility gives users a lot of latitude to adopt the information security controls that make sense to them, but makes it unsuitable for the relatively straightforward compliance testing implicit in most formal certification schemes.
ISO/IEC 27001 (Information technology - Security techniques - Information security management systems - Requirements) is a widely recognized certifiable standard. ISO/IEC 27001 specifies a number of firm requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining and improving an ISMS, and lays out in Annex A a suite of 133 information security controls that organizations are encouraged to adopt where appropriate within their ISMS. The controls in Annex A are derived from and aligned with ISO/IEC 27002.
Security certification remains rare. No national bank in the US is ISO-27001 certified. Google Apps has been ISO-27001 certified by Ernst & Young CertifyPoint, receiving certification #2012-001 on MAY 28, 2012. Google "has earned ISO 27001 certification for the systems, applications, people, technology, processes and data centers serving Google Apps for Business," specifically "GMail, Google Talk, Google Calendar, Google Docs (documents, spreadsheets, presentations), Google Sites, Google Control Panel (CPanel), Google Contacts, Google Video, Google Groups, Google Directory Sync," and Google's APIs for Provisioning, Single Sign On, Reporting and Audit.
Ongoing development 
Both ISO/IEC 27001 and ISO/IEC 27002 are currently being revised by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC27. This is a routine activity every few years for ISO/IEC standards, in order to keep them current and relevant. It involves, for instance, incorporating references to other issued security standards (such as ISO/IEC 27000, ISO/IEC 27004 and ISO/IEC 27005) and various good security practices that have emerged in the field since they were last published. Due to the significant 'installed base' of organizations already using ISO/IEC 27002, particularly in relation to the information security controls supporting an ISMS that complies with ISO/IEC 27001, any changes have to be justified and, wherever possible, evolutionary rather than revolutionary in nature. The revised standards are expected to be published in 2013.
See also 
- BS 7799, the original British Standard from which ISO/IEC 17799 and then ISO/IEC 27002 was derived
- ISO/IEC 27000-series
- IT baseline protection
- IT risk management
- List of ISO standards
- Sarbanes–Oxley Act
- Standard of Good Practice published by the Information Security Forum
- ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 - IT Security techniques