Adnyamathanha language

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Adnyamathana
Region South Australia
Native speakers
110  (2006 census)[1]
Pama–Nyungan
  • Thura-Yura
    • Yura
      • Adnyamathanha–Kuyani
        • Adnyamathana
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
adt – Adnyamathanha
gvy – Guyani
AIATSIS[2] L10, L9
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Adnyamathanha (Pronounced: /ˈɑːdnjəˌmʌdənə/) (many other names; see below) is a moribund Australian Aboriginal language. It is the traditional language of the Adnyamathanha people.

The name of the witchetty grub comes from Adnyamathanha.

Names[edit]

This language has been known by many names and variants of names, including:

  • Adnyamathanha, Adynyamathanha, Adjnjamathanha, Atʸnʸamat̪an̪a, Adnjamathanha, Adnyamathana, Anyamathana, Ad'n'amadana, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Unyamootha
  • Wailpi, Wailbi, Waljbi, Wipie, the name of a dialect
  • Archualda
  • Benbakanjamata
  • Binbarnja
  • Gadjnjamada, Kanjimata, Keydnjmarda
  • Jandali
  • Mardala
  • Nimalda
  • Nuralda
  • Umbertana

Guyani is also spelled Kijani, Kuyani, Kwiani.

Classification[edit]

R. M. W. Dixon classifies Adnyamathanha and Guyani as a single language. Ethnologue treats them as separate, and so they each have their own ISO 639-3 codes.

Phonology[edit]

Adjnjamathanha and Guyani have the same phonemic inventory.

Vowels[edit]

Front Back
High i iː u uː
Low a aː

Consonants[edit]

Most of the nasals and laterals are allophonically prestopped.[3]

Peripheral Laminal Apical
Labial Velar Palatal Dental Alveolar Retroflex Glottal
Stop Voiceless p k c t ʈ (ʔ)
Voiced (ɖ )
Fricative Voiced (v)
Nasal m ~ bm ŋ ɲ ~ ɟɲ n̪ ~ d̪n̪ n ~ dn ɳ ~ ɖɳ
Lateral ʎ ~ ɟʎ l̪ ~ d̪l̪ l ~ dl ɭ ~ ɖɭ
Flap ɾ ɽ
Trill r
Approximant w j ɻ

[v] may be an allophone of /p/.

History[edit]

While the closely related Guyani retains word-initial stops, Adnyamathanha has undergone systematic lenition of stops in this position. Former *p has become [v], former *t̪ and probably also *c have become /j/, and former *k has disappeared entirely.

Grammar[edit]

Adnyamathanha has a complex system of personal pronouns. There are 10 different ways of saying ‘you and me’ (first person dual), depending on the relationship between the speaker and the person addressed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Adnyamathanha at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Guyani at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Adnyamathana at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies  (see the info box for additional links)
  3. ^ Jeff Mielke, 2008. The emergence of distinctive features, p 135